Wednesday, July 11, 2012
Sunday, June 17, 2012
Venerating the Truth of Immortal Nibbana
Amāmaha Nivana Pilimbanda Satyabhivadanaya
Even after the passing away of Buddha, many noble personnel lay and clergy who had realized this Truth, popularized that noble message in foreign lands too. Any one who has gained this experience even today should convey the message of that instant cessation of perception to the society as a respect to the Buddha's advice. It should be so,as it is the true liberation for which the devoted personnel are going in search of.
KULARATHNE NAKKAWATTE YEAR 2006
Books Written by the Author Kularathna Nakkawatta
1).Bhava Nirodhaya (The Cessation of Becoming) in Sinhala. First edition February 2003 Second edition January 2004 (The best seller of, Godage publications in 2003) 2).Satyabhivadanaya (Venerating the Truth) in Sinhala First edition August 2004 2004
Second edition December
3).Arya Darshanaya (The Noble Vision) in Sinhala First edition July 2005 4).Arya Dhanaya (The Noble Wealth) in Sinhala' First edition January 2006 (Selected for the Buddhist Anniversary commemoration 2550 by the Sri Lanka Buddhist Association) 5).Akalika Gautama Darshanaya (The Non-time Gotama Vision) in Sinhala. First edition September 2006 The English translations to be out recently 1).The Noble Vision. 2).The Noble Wealth. 3).The Nontime Gotama Vision.
Dedication Those who wish to attain the Great Liberation in the immortal Nibbana should be helpless and destitute in themselves. No one would be helpless and destitute in themselves unless one ends the 'I ness' which is fettered with the six bases of mental activity. This book entitled 'The Truth in universe "in which is included the original, doctrine as taught by the Buddha himself, is dedicated to the intelligent Buddhist devotees who have already realized that the sole cause of suffering is negligence or indolence.
Permission is granted by the author to translate this book into other languages with out alterations
Author 's acknowledgement of the English Translation of the Wisdom Review Series
The Wisdom Review Series is a presentation of the Universal Truth as taught by the Buddha. At the request of the readers, inland and abroad who have gone through the Sinhala Version of the Wisdom Review Series, it was decided that this series should be translated in to English Language. I discussed this matter with Mr. Jayatilaka Rathnayake of Nakkawatta who willingly undertook this diffcult task without hesitation. He is a retired trained graduate Master Teacher who is well versed in English, Sinhalese and Pali. He was Fortunate enough to make the task more accurate with the assistance in revising and proof reading of Mr. Joseph Cuthbert Morris of Alawatta Horombawa who is also engaged in an exhausting Research with regard to the Ultimate Reality taught by the Buddha. I gratefully acknowledge the service rendered by them for the benefit of the masses.
FROM THE TRANSLATOR This is the English Translation of the book entitled-"Venerating the Truth of Immortal Nibbana" (Amāmaha Nivana Pilimbanda Satyabhivadanaya) written in Sinhala by Mr. Kularathna Nakkawatta. In this book the author has tried to clarify the Noble Path leading to Nibbana, taught by the Buddha. He introduces to the reader, his own experience of seeing the Truth. The author emphasizes to the reader to achieve this ability of realization through an instant cessation of perception. He has introduced here descriptive definitions on the Noble - Vision, with the processes applicable for the investigation in search of the Truth. I wish that I could have been fruitful to a certain extent in this attempt to enable the reader to appreciate the reality in the novelty, the author has strived to insert through his introductions on what the Buddha taught. Here in this work, I have played only the role of an independent translator and I would like to insist that the personal views or acceptations of my own are not inserted any where in the contents that prevail on the sole responsibility of the author Mr.Kularatna Nakkawatta to whom I would like to express my sense of gratitude for paying a great interest in this work . I am greatly beholden and deeply grateful to Mr. P.M.Chandrasekara Retd Administrative Officer, of Murutenge, to Mrs.Sheela Herath Retd English teacher of Unaliya, kitalawa, who have taken a keen interest to go through the manuscript suggesting necessary alterations: to Mr. R.Wijeratna, Retd Executive officer. State Administrative Service, No 50, Weerakoon Gardens Kandy.
for giving me valuable guidance: to Mr. Joseph Cuthbert Morris of Alawatta, Horombava for going through the proof and suggesting suitable alterations in the presentation, to Dr. Mrs. Sheela Subasinghe of Welpalla and Captain Jayasiri Wijesinghe Retd Engineer, of Sri Lanka Army Force, 3/11 Padukka Road, Godagama, Meegoda for encouraging me in the work appreciating the attempt. Jayatilaka Rathnayake, Nakkawatta, Sri Lanka. Tel.- 4.94-037-2286125 12. May 2006, The Vesak Fullmoon. Day of Buddha's Anniversary 2550.
PREFACE The Buddhist is a person who behaves in Dhamma with confidence born out of conviction, constantly linking with his wisdom. As well, is engaged in achieving the ability to explore the reality of the universal nature and the being, realizing clearly the real nature of the emotions and concepts. Mr. H. M. Kularatna, one of our intimate contributors is a Buddhist in the true sense of the word, with all these features. To my knowledge, he is a person who is devoted to the temple and the order of Monks and has attached the Triple Gem to his life as a crown flower and is endowed with sermonizing on what the Buddha taught with causal comprehension. His first book " The Bhava Nirodhaya" (The cessation of Becoming) written on -the doctrine of reality, has gained the public goodwill being the best seller of Godage publications in 2003, insists response of the; sensitivity- of the readers on what he says and writes. We should appreciate him as of layman engaged in such a worthy task. This is the second book written by hint. This book reveals a deep definition of body and mind. Though the body is visible to the physical eye, the mind can never be seen outwardly. What is defined in the doctrine taught by the Buddha is the real stability of the matter (rupa) called body and the name (nama) called mind. Even if the body is visible from it's origination to the end the mind is not so. The mind is composed of a breakable nature instantly within the arising itself. Though the body too is of the same nature it is not seen outwardly. It cannot be spoken of a body or mind that does not change. The Buddha who taught Dhamma to the world Beings for a period of forty five years, even at the last moment of
his life emphasized the nature of destructibility (vayadhamma) speaking his last words that all component things are destructible (vayadhamma sankharā). The mind and body which are destructible do not exist even for a single instant. "All conditioned things are impermanent" (sabbē sankhara anicca) shows that this state of nonexistence is common to the whole universe. The term, " All Dhammas are without self' (all Dhammas mean, all things conditioned or nonconditioned, relative or absolute) in the Pali text, further shows that all the things material and immaterial are subjected to this nature, are without self. The Buddha taught that nominal and physical things (nama rupa dhamma) which are subjected to the three characteristics of existence impermanence, suffering and soullessness, are nothing but a state of Conditioned Genesis (Paticca- samuppada) which exists without a doer or causer and those causes and effects are subjected to cessation on the same spot and thus manifesting this state of cessation from within ownself, can attain the state of Extinction, the Nibbana.It is seen in some contents in the texts that the problem of the manifestation of Nibbana has existed in the past as well as today. "Nibbana, Nibbana Sariputta vuccati -kathamannukho avuso nibbananti ". Thus once a wandering ascetic by the name Canna, questioned Venerable Sariputta. "It says Nibbana, Nibbana Venerable Sariputta, What is called Nibbana"?. "o'friend", replied Venerable Sariputta, "Extinction of greed, hate and delusion is called Nibbana"'. (yō khō avuso, ragakkhayo, dōsakkhayō, mohakkhayō, idhan vaccati nibbana) Even today many peopled are engaged in searching and investigating Nibbana. But they are still destitute without knowing the correct ways and means of
discovering it from within ownself. This book clearly shows how the continuity of Becoming is created with the arousing of craving when all causal effects are evolved in the arising of a thought; how the continuity of Becoming and all the causal effects that had arisen in correspondence of the cessation within the origination of that thought ceases instantly; and how could Nibbana be realized freed from the mind, when that cessation is seen from within ownself heedfully and awakenly. This work called " The Truth in Nibbana" would he a favourable guide to the wise friends who are in the attempt of searching for the way leading to Nibbana, with great courage. In order to be righteous (to be fitted with Dhamma) it is essential to get Dhamma clarified. Following an unknown doctrine would not be fruitful. They who have realized Dhamma should make others know and understand it. It is a great duty of them. We appreciate the worthy religious service of Mr. Kularatne who is engaged in such a great task.
Kobbewala Dharmappriya Them. Committee of Sri Lanka Ramanna Maha Nikaya. Ex- Principal and present Director or Sri Silawathie Maha Pirivena Narammala.
10 | P a g e
Something about the contents The doctrine of reality discovered by our Super exalted, the Fully Enlightened Lord Buddha with his unique axiomatic wisdom is extremely profound. The Buddha made it clear to the whole world that the supermundane Truth of Reality would be disclosed through a cessation of perception that occurs in an instant, when the reality of the complicated convention is being seen from within oneself at the same spot. But the mass of people do not understand the Truth of Reality which is clearly explained by the Buddha, because of the difficulty of making out the difference between the convention and the Ultimate Reality. That is why the world being is engaged in an endless journey in the cycle of continuity or the transmigration; being subdued to the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and the mind that accomplish the convention. What the Buddha has taught is a way to shorten the cycle of continuity and be saved from Dukkha. A clear direction has been shown in the guidance to realize being in the convention itself that the world is an illusion and how to be aware of that doctrinal path of the absolute Truth in one's self created wisdom. Those who are accepted as scholars and intellectuals in the conventional world gather their knowledge through the studies on physical subjects in the outer world. Many people are deceived by the fact that the 'modern science' fed with perceptive knowledge gained through the studies connected with the time is the sole Universal Truth. The scientific data discovered by one generation would differ from the new discoveries of the next generation and the new ideas are continued thereon. The earliest scientists declared that the earth was a square. Another scientist in the next generation
11 | P a g e
showed with reasonable facts that it was a spherical object . But a very few people knew that the nature of the physical investigation done linking with the senses caught in time is nothing but the same differentiation. But the nontimic doctrine of reality disclosed by the Buddha is a very profound philosophy which had gone surpassing the modern science and it is the Eternal Truth that does not change in the beginning, in the middle or in the end. It is difficult to realize the Ultimate Reality of the world to the worldings (potujjana) clinged on different views and because of the knowledge obtained through sensuous experience caused by ignorance. Different interpretations of the mind are found in books. The people who accept them as the pure truth are being deceived today. That is why they go chasing after outer forces seeking for consolation in mind. Many of them are not aware that the doctrine of Dependent origination (paticca samuppada) is the real revelation of the mind which is similar to a mirage. To see Dhamma is to see the reality of the mind. The external world to which we are exposed is created within the mind. The world is a Iinage of thoughts that die within the arising itself Thus the Buddha advised us to realize the Truth by seeing the reality of the world, from within ownself. The only thing that should happen for the manifestation of Nibbana is realizing what the mind is and seeing its cessation from within ownself. Look at a tree. One may say that the tree shakes. Another one may say what shakes is not the tree, but the wind. All these are, true in the convention. But when it is considered in reality what shakes is not the tree or the wind but the mind. Assume that you see externally a scene of a child blowing up, a balloon. As the Buddha has clarified that the whole world is created
12 | P a g e
within own self, both the balloon and the child who blows up, the balloon are only concepts created in one's own mind. What would it really blow up when seeing it blowing up? It is the own mind. Assume that the balloon bursts. What did really burst? Nothing but the own mind. That is the reality. What is the method to see the dhamma evidently? It is seeing from within ownself the destruction of all the concepts of the natures subjected to five senses as colour, sound etc through dispersion instantly on the same spot. When seeing it, the realization of the Four Noble Truths would occur within ownself along with it simultaneously . Therefore this truth can be realized without a least difficulty along with the performance of one's own daily activities.What is needed is only to maintain zealous (appamada) enlightened thinking. That is the way once followed by the citizens of Kuru colony. When proceeding on seeing the reality of mind, it is the great wisdom, the Nibbana or the doctrinal eye, the Dhamma cakkhu that would arise instantly through an instant cessation of perception- (sauna nirodha). It is from there, that it would be "light arisen aloko udapadi) having discarded the darkness of ignorance.A correct interpretation on what the reality or the Noble Vision (ariya dassana) is bestowed in this hook, in such a time that some persons have instigated to accept the wrong opinion that the combination of Buddhist culture and it's literature make the Buddhist vision. The intellectuals who read this book with a deep review would realize that the content in it has logically introduced the same pure nonlogical (atakkavacara) doctrine taught by the Buddha. It would be the profound consequence that can he achieved by the rare human quality to
13 | P a g e
realize the correct way of Nibbana today itself by going through this text of Dhamma unheard before, a few more times. Sheela Subasingha, Welpalla, Sri lanka. Tel.:+94-031-2299514
14 | P a g e
FROM THE AUTHOR Let my salutation be to the Exalted the Fully Enlightened Lord Buddha, to the Noble Doctrine taught by him and to the Noble order of Monks. I worship, my mother, father and all my teachers. Devoted friends, We hear lectures and read books on Buddhism. Through both forms we search for the Ultimate liberation from the continuity of existence. For the achievement of the Ultimate Liberation shown in Buddhism, the cessation of perception (sanna) is to be experienced after having ending up the consciousness, used as knowledge from within ownself. The unawareness of the correct methodical process has been the cause for the journey of the cycle of continuity (sansdra). The main intention of this work is to introduce you to the content of which is fruitful. The mind along with the five senses make general rules (dhammata) the collection of which is known as the convention (sanunataya). The background of the convention is the conception. That is why the Buddha said that the world is created within ownself: Refraining from that conception or consciousness which is considered as the external world is called Nibbana. What is disclosed in this book, is the system of the Buddhist Vision. Those who intend to follow this path should understand through a keen study what the Buddhist culture, the Buddhist literature and the Buddhist philosophy are. The culture and philosophy are the nature of worldly convention' linked with the conception. Being setting in the vision is being into the cessation within ownself, having refrained from the conception.
15 | P a g e
Therefore it should not be mistaken that the Buddhist vision is the so-called conception. This is the only message that should and could be conveyed to the world, about the Buddhist vision' This real Buddhist vision which is to be seen within ownself is to be donated to the world as a subject even at this stage in order to create a peaceful human generation freed from the selfish motive that causes all sorts of conflicts. The foundation needed for this task is introduced to the readers by me in this text and in the previous work called "The cessation of Becoming" (Bhava nirodhaya) Those who are engaged in different researches introduce the results they had gained openly to the society as laws and theories. In the same way the ascetic Siddhatta introduced the facts he gained through his own experience of his noble research to the Five Ascetics. After that the Buddha proceeded with disclosing this truth to Yasa, a son of a millionaire, the princes of Bhaddavagga, Uruvela Kassapa, Gaya Kassapa and Nadi Kassapa etc . Those who heard these sermons and realized the Truth had conveyed the message of their own experience to others. The Buddha advised his disciples who had realized the Truth thus: "Go forth O'Bhikkhus, for the good, benefit and comfort of the masses". Even after the passing away of Buddha, many noble personnel lay and clergy who had realized this Truth, popularized that noble message in foreign lands too. Any one who has gained this experience even today should convey the message of that instant cessation of perception to the society as a respect to the Buddha's advice. It should be so, as it is the true liberation for which the devoted personnel are going in search of. An opinion is formed today that those who have achieved this experience should not reveal it to anyone else. But it is a senseless and baseless idea. It is the only noble message
16 | P a g e
awardable to the human multitude. As they knew that it was the best award to the world, venerable Arahant Sariputta compiled a journal of Captions stirring, up the whole vision of Tathagata and also the great Arahant Moggaliputta Tissa composed the Exposition of Controversy (Katawattu pakarena). Nibbana is not a complicated mystery incapable fo being unconcealed by enthusiastic devotees. What is needed is to approach the correct path. Those who encouraged me to produce this sort of an exposition to show that right path were the devoted readers of my previous work, "The cessation of Becoming " (Bhava nirodhaya). A brief account of the Noble Vision is included in it. It was shortened with the intention of introducing only the essential facts on the realistic vision. Many intellectuals who had read it ,had expressed that it was the same real Truth unheard before and urged me to rewrite it simplifying further to make easy to understand by every body. Therefore this book is written with descriptive definitions understandable by all who are without a least knowledge of the Noble Vision and others who are aware of it. I do offer my grateful thanks and salutations to Right Reverend Venerable Kebbewala Dharmappriya Nayaka Maha Thera, the committee member of Sri Lanka Ramanna Maha Nikaya, Ex-Principal and present director of Sri Seelawathie Maha pirivena, Narammala. for giving me necessary admonitions and advice with regard to this hook and also writing the preface to it. I also offer my grateful thanks to venerable pothiyagama Wimalasoma Maha Thera, Chief incumbent of Sri Mahindarama, Moragoda, Gampaha, for assisting me in this task, advising me kindly.
17 | P a g e
I do respectably convey my thanks to Dr. Mrs Sheela Subasinghe who wrote an introduction to the book, Messrs, K.G. Karunadasa, Master Teacher, for Buddhism, W. R.Wickramaratne, school teacher, who did proof reading, Mrs.K.P. Dayawathie, who prepared the Manuscript Mr.S. Godage, the Head of Godage book . Palace Mrs. Godage and their work force who did the printing works enthusiastically. H.M.Kularatne, Angurukandagara, Nakkawatta, Sri Lanka. Tel: +94,037-2286218
18 | P a g e
Contents From the Translator Preface Something about the contents From the Author 1. What is Truth? page 23
2. The Reality of the Matter. page 38 3. The Reality of the Mind. page 61 4. The Reality of the time . page 74 Page 83 page 93
5. The Reality of the Birth and Death.
6. The Cessation of the Dependent Origination . 7. Seeing the four Noble Truths. page 120 8. The Ten Fetters-The barriers to Nibbana. 9. The Stream Entrant – Sotapanna. 10. The Noble Research. page 159
11. How to Progress seeing from within ownself.
12, The Buddhahood, Deliverance (Nibbana) and the Buddha. page 202 Glossary Index page page 210 219
19 | P a g e
WHAT IS TRUTH ? The exalted, Fully Enlightened Lord Buddha, the Tathagata is the most noble one who has introduced an incomparable profound philosophy which has overcome all the visions, laws and theories of the philosophers ever born in the world. This nonlogical vision is an eternal untime Truth which remains unchanged at the beginning called the past. at the middle called the present and at the end called the future; and also was unchanged by any philosopher in the past and is not disproved by any intellectual in the present and would be undeniable by any philosopher in the future. This doctrine of Dependent origination (paticca samuppāda) or the doctrine of Cause and Effect which was disclosed through the Noble Research under the motto of "in search of what is called the Truth" (kin sacra gavēsi) reveals profoundly that the cause and requisite all arise together at the same time and cease or vanish simultaneously with the arising itself. This philosophy which is also known as the cessation of Cause and Effect, has cleared neatly that the ignorance (avijja) is the cause and then the effect would be the thought which is born because of the ignorance and when the effect known as as the thought, ceases within the arising itself, the cause which is named ignorance which was the base to create that effect named thought too is subjected to cessation and this cessation is an instant occurrence which is inapplicable with the chronology of past, present and future, and this state of instant simultaneous termination of Cause and
20 | P a g e
Effect or the Ultimate liberation is the Nibbana. Many people today are made aware of the state of Nibbana as the cessation of cause and effect or the cessation of Dependent Origination by going through books and hearing_ Buddhist sermons, and simply stay there. It is only a consciousness knowledge gained by ownself. In order to receive the real answer to what is called the Truth –Nibbana, should be realized from within one's ownself having occurred the cessation of dependent Origination. Many people are deceived by the fact that this realization occurs' in the mind. This realization occurs when it is completely freed from the mind but never in the mind. The state known as Nibbana that get free front conventional world is the ending of body and mind in an instant with nothing remaining. The arising of this state of super mundane which is completely emitted from worldly conditions is the victory of birth and death. The convention -ends with emptiness as clarified soulless, lifeless and emptied as said,"nissatto nijjivō sunnō". The great wisdom arises there. The great wisdom is the Buddhahood that arises when the state of being and person ends. The Buddhahood is the only eternal and everlasting reality that exist within the whole universe. The only state indestructible caught in time is this eternal truth. A verbal interpretation cannot be introduced on Nibbana. This state of which is incapable to express that it is with or without anything is more profound. The being who always seeks comforts in the conventional world does seek further ways and means to be attached with them, but would never think that they are temporary
21 | P a g e
and worldly and end with death. Siddhatta the great Bodhisatta (bent on the ideal of enlightenment) was the only person to whom the pleasant thought arose for the profound research . This led to the saving of himself and other worldly beings bound to suffer through sickness, old age and death, after they are born. This great philosopher who faced the extremely difficult challenge of the victory of birth and death for the cessation of suffering revealed an eternal doctrine which gives all the worldly beings the immortal serenity of health. All other philosophers and teachers in the world introduced their visions, through the concept built up using the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and the mind. But what this great philosopher has disclosed is a vision he gained freed from senses of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind freed from the conception and through a cessation of perception. Therefore when we compare it with the other philosophies in the world the Buddhist philosophy shows an unequal profound difference as earth to sky. As this vision does not arise at any place where the five senses and the mind, are functioning in ignorance: it is a clear manifestation that arises within ownself gaining through wisdom, when one is being destitute without seeking refuge of the senses. The Buddha who Came into being in an epoch when people used to put up gala parties when a birth took place; declared with the term, "jatipi dukkha" that the so called birth is nothing else but suffering as of the main cause of suffering is that same birth. He clarified that this birth which leads the being into eternal Dukkha (suffering) is the result of the consciousness created in one's ownself, because of arising thoughts and that consciousness is conditioned through ignorance and that death ends with the cessation of
22 | P a g e
consciousness; but the ordinary people who are unaware of this procedure are engaged in an eternal or endless tour of transmigration or continuity of Becoming with the attachment (upadana) occurring usage of consciousness (vinnana) bounded in the darkness of ignorance due to unawareness of the facts. The pure uniqueness of this extremely profound vision had never been disclosed by any philosopher that ever lived. It is not a disclosure created with borrowed knowledge, and it is with the nature of clearance of a self vision formed out of one's own realistic comprehension when and where all the knowledge existed is quitted off from within ownself. The great teacher who has clarified that the occurrence of the birth which is the main suffering is the Dependent Origination and the ending of that birth is the cessation of the conditioned suffering; further showed that the appearance and the disappearance of the Dependent Origination called the arising and cessation is an occurrence at the same instant and at the same spot, and this process which is occurred without a doer or a causer, a
being or a person is only a theory of cause and effect and all sufferings are extinguished at the simultaneous cessation of the cause and effect and this state is the Nibbana which is the end of the cycle of continuity. This profound Buddha Vision is disclosed through the nontimic doctrine known as the Ultimate Language (paramatta desana) This profound doctrine known as Metaphysics or higher doctrine (Abhidhamma) cannot be understand by the ordinary people who are intoxicated by greed When the Buddha revealed this reality that day, certain Brahamins exclaimed "Gothama the great Samana is a mad man" Even today many people say the same thing when reality is disclosed. It is not the fault of the
23 | P a g e
Buddha vision or of them who reveal the truth of the vision gained through their experience from within their ownself, but it is the incapability of the listeners to understand this realistic doctrine That is why the Buddha said thus "sabbe potujjanā ummattaka", which ordinary people simply behave as mad men. There are certain chapters of Dhamma approved by the Buddha, for the ordinary people who are attached with clinging and so are incapable to hold this nontimic vision freed from the conceptions. They (those Dhammas) are for the benefit of the present world and the world after. The sermons meant for the good of this world are known as "dicta dhammika" (belong to this world) and the sermons for the good of the next world are known as samparaika" (belong to next world). Both kinds are timely sermons affiliated to the karmic effectivism (kamma phala vada) But the Buddha advised the devotees with noble qualities who are in search of the way to realize Nibbana which is untimic, (akalika), interceptive (avedita), dispassionate or immaterial (niramisa) and eternal (sadatanika); to be established in the Middle path majjima patipada), being getting rid of the two extremes, one, " being addicted to sensual pleasure. (kama sukalli kanu yoga) and the other, "the self mortification" (attakila matanuyoga) He clears that the person who follows this ethically neutral (neither good nor bad) (avyakata) procedure would receive the highest enlightenment (abhisambhodhi) The theory of kamma result (kamma phala vada) and many other theories equivalent were in practice before Buddha's birth Buddha has cleared that if any person comes to a conclusion that his present experience of dukkha, the suffering, sukha the comfort and the
24 | P a g e
adukkama sukha the neutrality are the results of his previous deeds, it is an acceptation of Nigantha theory. ' Thus he has said " Yan kincayan purisa puggalo patisanvedeti sukhana - dukkhan vā - adukkhama sukhan vā sabbatthan pubbē katha ēvan vādinō bikkhavē nighantha" After listening to the Buddha, Upali the chief lay disciple of Nigantha Nātha putta, (Jaina Maha Weera) said that he would not further follow the doctrine of Maha Weera But the Buddha advised him thus " Upali don't do so while you follow my teaching continue to respect and support your old religious teacher further as you used to." This is applicable for today itself. Buddha has never advised to get rid of working for the betterment of this birth -and next birth knowing, what is merit and demerit connected with the theory of kamma effect, until one realizes the doctrine of the perfect one, the theory of the Cause and Effect. He approved that it is appropriate to be in practice with the noble qualities of sublime abodes loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, equanimity,giving alms, morality and mental devolvement until one reaches the state of complete disposal of earthly desires that are needed for the realization of Nibbana "Buddha clarified rebirth occurs through conscious thinking formed by ignorance which leads a person to suffer or to have comfort when one is reborn. To attain Nibbana one should realize the Truth which brings about eternal and deathless comfort through which the flames of suffering of cycle of rebirth is extinguished. When defining what the truth is, it is introduced in two forms, the conventional truth and the absolute Truth or Ultimate Reality. The conventional truth can be understood easily by many as it is consisted of colours, sounds, smells, tastes and contacts seen and
25 | P a g e
felt by senses and mind. The convention which is fed by visions and philosophies of different thinkers and philosophers and is a lineage of thoughts consisting of different attitudes, alternatives, concepts, assumptions and a mere multitude of conscious knowledge. In pali texts this convention is introduced as sankata' (formed or mental creation) and the Absolute Truth of Nonconvention as 'asankata' (unformed. unconditioned) Clarifying the nature of the convention. The Pali text shows that there is birth and death and hange (destruction,) in between them. It states thus: "kathamāni sankhatassa sankhata lakkhanāni?uppādō pannāyati vayō pannnāyati dhitassa annatatthan pannāyati." Its states that non-convention or unformed unconditioned is Nibbāna, as thus: ”asankhata dhātūti asankhata sabāvan nibbānan"Those who accept the
convention as the truth experiance birth death and change in b e t w e e n d o n o t find it difficult to come to a conclusion that convention is the place for birth and death. Birth and death are to be conquered in order to be freed from the suffering of continutity of existence. For that victory one should experience the convention from within ownself and then achieve the reality through wisdom. An agreement of every thing is achieved through conception. Every thing in the whole world is created because of the conception. Those conceptions are held in the conception itself. The confirmation of being and existence of every thing is the nature of conception (mind) it is stated thus: cittēna niyati loko - cittēna pari kassati
26 | P a g e
cittassa ēka dhammassa - sabbēva vasaman vagū" It should be examined what sort of a nature the conception is. The conception is formed within ownself because of the ignorance. When clinging is functioned assuming that the external world is a reality, thoughts of colour, sound, smell taste and contact would arise. This sensation functions with the usage of the mind with the assistance of the senses of eye, ear, nose, tongue and body. It should be examined of what form is the activation of this thought which is taken as the effect that arises because of the cause of ignorance. The convention is made known with words used by thoughts. These thoughts and words too disperse cracking and breaking then and there itself with out a least remnant. Therefore not a single thought or word is left remaining. When it is so, would there be a mind created with a collection of thoughts?. Certainly not. (a separate definition of the mind is included here) It is because of ignorance that we have come to the conclusion that there is a being called ‘I’ when there is no mind existing even for an instant. Although there is a being in the convention, in reality where a mind is absent a being too is absent. At such a place where neither a mind nor a being is present, can there be an external world? No it can never be. If it is so, there would be a confusion as to who is here and what is there outwardly. Every thing is shown as in the form of existing by the consciousness which is conditioned through ignorance. All the volitional actions which are defined in the standard Pali texts, as meritorious kamma formations (punnābhi sankhāra) non-meritorious kamma formations (apunnābhi sankhāra) and neither meritorious nor demeritorious kamma formations
27 | P a g e
(aneyyābhi sankhāra) and shown as comfort (sukha) discomfort (dukkha) and nonegonised or neutral comfort (adukkhama sukha) clarified as "avijjā paccayā sankhāra" are only conceptions built through clinging (upādana) which is occurred within own self through ignorance. As it is said "sabbē sankhārā aniccā, sabbē sankhārā dukkha and sabbē dhammā anattā" means, all conditioned things are impermanent, all conditioned things are dukkha, and all Dhammas are without self; and further says to see it through wisdom, as given' yadā pannāya passati;' and it says the only way to realize the Noble truth is to see through wisdom, as given "atha nibbindhāti dukkhē esamaggō visuddhiyā"It says in the words " lmasmin yēva byāmamattē kalēbarē lōkanca pannāpēmi" that what the world has taken as the convention is the consciousness created within ownself as volitional actions (sankhārā).If it is so, the world is created within ownself as a result of ignorance. As far as this mental world is functioning other than proceeding on in search of worldly comforts sunk in the darkness of ignorance, one would never reach the state of supermundane crossing over that world. When the world of consciousness is crossed over, overall up to infinity be resplendent. No liquidity, heat, airiness or solidity exists there. Neither lengthiness nor shortness, nor smallness nor ignorance nor goodness nor badness exists. The mind as well as the body totally ends up. As thus all ends with the cessation of consciousness. It goes on to say, Vinnānan anidassanan - anantan sabbatō pahān Ettha āpōca pathavi - tējō vāyō nagādati
Ettha dighanca rassanca - anun thūlan subhā subhan
28 | P a g e
Ettha nāmance rūpanca - asēsan upa rujjati Vinnānassa nirōdhēna - etthētan uparujjati If it is so, what should be done? The reality of the consciousness would be recognized. It is a mirage that compels the being into constant suffering confirming the convention as the truth. It is the only hindrance against the realization of Nibbāna. To get rid of that mirage a way should be found out to end the suffering of the cycle of rebirth. The ordinary being sees the nature made known as convention more as heaps and masses. The sky, the earth, the sun, the moon, the stars, the planets, the world, of fauna and flora and all universal creations are known by names and perceptions given to them. All these perceptions are created and adopted by man himself. How the perception was called the earth created. A Person in the past had named the earth by that name and there after men called it earth and it prevails in convention. If this did not happen we would not call the earth by that name. When the earth is touched with the hand, foot or eye decision is made it's the solid earth. It's simply a thought arisen by touch with the hand. When the touch is made by foot another thought arises. Similarly another thought arises when you see the earth with your eye. It's through thoughts we say that the earth is large and solid. The eye, ear, nose tongue, body and mind which are contacted with the perceptive objects are also perceptions named approved by the masses. What is called "I' which is concluded as a creation of a mass collection is merely a perception. If these thoughts had not arisen would there be attitudes, alternative,
29 | P a g e
concepts or assumptions conceded with them? The answer is in negative. The whole lineage of thoughts thus arise is the world. The nature of thoughts is dispersing through breaking and cracking through out. The whole lineage of thoughts taken as the world is the same delusive consciousness which is being breaking and cracking instantly at the same spot. This is called delusory mirage like consciousness is untreatable where a mental object is absent. The Buddha said that it is made within the ownself. In order to create the world within ownself, the self or 'I' should exist. It is to be studied deeply to know whether 'I' is really there. Assume that the being (child) called 'I' is born at nine in the morning; this child who is born within the nonstop motion of time is caught in it at the birth itself. Now think that one second has passed after nine; then two seconds, and three seconds. In this way it decided seen through the senses that the child grows constantly second by second. But the reality of this can be apprehended seeing within ownself through wisdom. The child who was born at nine begins to live second by second means that he begins to die also second by second. Thus the child dies within the birth itself. If the child is to exist for an instant the motion of time is to be stopped for that instant. Could it so happen? No it would never happen. It looks as it is existing. But it is only the illusory conception (thinking) of consciousness built through ignorance. What is adapted as 'I" is only a conception that died within the birth itself. Every thing in this whole universe including all planetary systems decay with no remnants left behind. Thus said Buddha: "Nāyan lōkō na para lōkō na ubhō candimā sūriyā" There is nothing
30 | P a g e
called a present world, a world after, a sun or a moon. The ordinary being who cannot comprehend the reality in deep, has come to a conclusion that the convention is a permanent existence. The only permanent existence is the impermanency or the nonexistence or the nonentity. One who believes that what is worthless is worthful that one would be grabbed into heresy gaining nothing worth, is the teaching of Buddha. Thus said;
Asārē sāra matinō - sārēva sāra dassinō
Tēsāran nādhi gaccanti - miccā sankappa gōcarā" If it is so, being freed from the worthless convention from within ownself, and being adapted into the view of the worthful Ultimate Reality would be the cessation of heresy the illusion. That reality which is called the Absolute Truth and which is to be disclosed from within ownself, is not a disclosure of knowledge gained by going through texts.The Knowledge should be achieved by going through books, hearing and discussing Dhamma in order to gain the ability to be active in the Noble Research for the realization of Nibbāna being freed from the mind. Thus said. "Sabbē dhamma pahātabban pagēva adhamma nittaranattāya-vō bhikkhavē dhamman dēsissāmi no gahanattaya" - "Give up all Dhammas, Adhamma the unconsciousness exists until they are given up. I teach Dhamma to lead the way for the cessation of attachment of the five senses and the mind" As far as Dhamma is heard and read, and mental culture is practiced the wisdom based on hearing (Sutamaya pannā) the wisdom based on consciousness (vinnānamaya pannā) and the wisdom based on mental culture (bhavanamaya pannā) would develop. Although these activities are to be
31 | P a g e
performed in order to disclose the facts in favour of the realization of Nibbāna, but it should be wise enough to be aware of what happens through these processes is only the feeding of consciousness. The Buddhist vision known as the Great Wisdom does arise when and where the cessation of perception is omitted, from within ownself. For this purpose the consciousness should be dropped off, after being well assure of it. The Buddha said that the learned scholar who prevails and established erudition over the Dhamma through his conscious knowledge is similar to a shepherd who looks after a herd of cattle belonging to another. The Buddha's words are : Bahumpicē sahitan bhāsamānō Natakkarō hōti narō pamattō Gōpōvagāvō ganiyan parēsan Na bhagavā sāmannassa hōti Pottila Thera, Who preached profound doctrine at lecture halls through conscious knowledge, gained through immense hearing was called by the Buddha, empty Pottila (tucca Pottila) It seems that they who are with a wider knowledge, but have not been into the vision through the cessation of perception, having dropped off that knowledge (consciousness) from within ownself are mere empty persons in the way of real knowledge. The intellectuals who have realized this profound doctrine in the early days, had declared that this doctrine which is to be realized and the state of Nibbāna is to be experienced through practical knowledge, was been unheard before, from anyone
32 | P a g e
else except from Lord Buddha, and it is a doctrine beyond logic which is incapable of respondence for disproof and through realistic comprehension the wisdom eye, the wisdom of reality, the absolute wisdom and the Buddhahood be gained, and the light arisen, thereby freed from the darkness of continuity of existence. As said thus: "etan bhagavatā bārānasiyan isipatanē migadāyē anuttaran dhammacakkam pavattitan appativattiyan samanēnavā brāhmanēnavā dēvēnavā mārēnavā brahmunāvā kēnacivā lōkasmin- pubbē ananussutēsu dhammēsu- cakkhun udapādi nānan udapādi - pannā udapādi - vijjā udapādi. -ālōkō udapādi" It had not been heard about Arahants who were freed all fetters who came into being after the Arahant Maliyadeva Mahā Thēra, If there are individuals at
present who been freed from mind experienced through the cessation of perception refrained from being deceived any further and realized the total nonentity of a person or a being in order to function a birth or a death; they are actually a very few, or less than a handful. That realistic intelligibility which is unidentified outwardly by none, is a very rare state popularly known as momentary Fortune (khana sampatti) occurring within ownself at an instant. It is certain that the noble devotees, who are industrious in the Noble Research, after a keen study of identification based on the cultural truth and the Absolute Truth, do receive the correct answer, within this birth itself. Then said The Buddha; "imēva subhadda! bhikkhu sammā viharayyum na sunnō lōkō ārahantēhi assa" as far as the Buddha's disciples (monks, nuns, male and female disciples-bhikku
bhikkhuni,upāsaka upāsikā) are in well conduct with regard to disciples, the world
33 | P a g e
would never be empty from accomplished ones the Arahants. This expression of Buddha shows clearly that the devotees who follow dhamma well, with the attempt of disclosing the Truth, are capable of realizing the Actuality even today itself.
34 | P a g e
2 THE REALITY OF THE MATTER The matter or the body is of a state of continuous change. It does not exist an instant unchanged. This continuous change is known as "ruppana"in pali texts. As this change is occured so, The Buddha said, ruppatiti kho bhikkhave tasma rupanti vuccati" O' monks, as it changes I call it "ruppana' the matter or the body. Explaining the formation of change Buddha says, that this change occurs by cold, warmth, hunger, thirst, stings of flies, mosquitoes and serpents, and also by air, heat, and contact. Thus said Buddha, "khēna ruppati? sitēna ruppati. unhēna ruppati. jigajjāya ruppati. pipāsāya ruppati. dansa, makasa, sirinsapa, vātappa, sampassatēna ruppati" This body which is originated from a state of generative propagation is introduced as a combination of thirty two impurities named as skin, flesh, nerves, bones, marrows, bowels, etc. and from which emanate excrements like substance, through nine outlets. When we get to learn further, about the body it seems that it is introduced as a mere figure with the nature of fluidity the state of coherence, pouring and entwining; heat or temperature, the state of warmth, motion the state of displacement solidity the voluminous hardness. The nutrients needed for the growth of a body is formed out of productions of the earth. Nothing is grown without water air and heat. The growth with the combination of them occurs on the same earth called the solidity. What are called meat, fish, milk, eggs, dried fish, vegetables and fruits with different signs, they all are creations based on the combination of the four
35 | P a g e
great elements , solidity, fluidity, heat and motion. What we eat naming with a sign as rice is also a combination of the great elements All the other foods are also the same. The body which is created with their combination, and the gene which created the body are all but great elements. The blood which created the gene, and is called by that name, is too a unification of the great elements. Though the thing that is born is called the child. what is born in reality is not a child but a unification of Great Elements. The substances called colour, smell, taste and essence which are linked with the Great elements or Ultimate Constituents, too are the creations from within the Great Elements. The pali text reveals that the Pure Eightfold Formation of fluidity, heat, motion, solidity, colour, smell, taste and essence linked with the mind has made the vitality or the faculty of life created. It is further clarified that the five senses such as eye, ear, nose, tongue and body except mind the mental organ is created with a combination of the corporealities and those corporealities are continuously destroyed through breaking and bursting and the senses are revived with the continuous creation of new corporeal groups. The Pali text says. " What exists here is only an action of the conceptions of body and mind emanated through ignorance. There is nothing to he taken as a being. person or a human being. This is like a scare crow made of old withered leaves." It makes clear in the stanza Nāmanca rūpanca idhanti sabbatō- nahettha sattō manujōva vijjati Sunnan idhan sattamvā hi sankhatn- dukkhassa punjō tina kattha sādiso" Buddha preached Dhamma considering the ability of comprehension of the listeners.
36 | P a g e
He made clear the coarseness of life to the people burdened with worldly mindedness, who are enjoying comforts in the present birth and willing the same in the birth after too, making visible outwardly the infertility of life. That is why the Buddha has introduced as a set of thirty-two impurities; as fluidity, heat, motion, solidity and space; as a Pure Eightfold Formation; and as a faculty of life. But what the Buddha taught was a much more profound doctrine for the benefit of intellectuals who are in search of what the Buddha taught as the transcendental philosophy passing over the perceptible thoughts exceeding the convention. That Ultimate Truth called the Buddha Vision is a doctrine sermonized on a supra mundane vision passed over the worldly nature which is formed with a Pure Eightfold formation and a mind. Through those profound discourses known as Ultimate Language (paramatta dēsanā) what he has disclosed is that not only that there is nothing to be taken as a matter or body, but also there is no one to be called as a mother, or a father, not even a being to be born spontaneously. This fact is clarified in the terms "natthi mātā, natthi pitā natthi sattā opapatikā". Thus the Buddha says: Although the illiterate people think that they possess children and wealth, one does not possess even his own self." "Puttā matti dhanan matthi - iti bōlō vihannati Attāhi attanō natthi - kutō puttō kutō dhanan" The personal usage or practice is done in respect of the five aggregates of matter, sensation, perception, mental formation and consciousness. Besides these natures, there is no one in reality to be called "a person" even prior to
37 | P a g e
the passing away to Nibbāna. In the investigation of nibbana, thinking and conferring over a person grasped in mind but entirely absent, would serve nothing but leads to a mess. The Buddha enlightens the senseless and baseless nature of this concept of being and person in the Aggi Vaccagotta Sutra. "Dear Vacca, concerning a certain body if one talks with the feeling of a being as a tall person, a short person, a lean person and a fat person etc. The Buddha refuses the so called body". According to this definition of Buddha, it is obvious that when the body is being refused, the concept of mind which is connected with the body too is being refused. The Buddha made it clear openly with factuality and causality through discussions that there was nothing to be taken as 'I' to them who had introduced themselves as the most learned and invincible intellectuals such as Saccaka who lived contemporary to him. This nonlogical teaching cannot be rejected by arguments of any learned person. In the attempt of realizing the profound doctrine the reality of the nature, what is accepted as the convention is to be understood. Why it should be done so. is that at the Noble Research that is to be done, the path to the cessation of the convention of the body and mind is to he understood. What is the real system applicable to apprehend this deep vision?Proceed with the activities of the convention as usual. Try to understand the reality of the proceeding convention from within ownself. When it happens so, the way to Nibbana can be reached making out the convention and the reality separately. Nevertheless if the convention and the reality would be entangled it will become a mere confusion incomprehensible. since these facts are thus revealed in order to build up the maturity against confusion,
38 | P a g e
nevertheless it does not mean at all to neglect one's mother, father, children or neighbours who are existing comfortably in the conventional world. The Buddha has praised the mother as the Buddha at home and taught to honour parents and elders. In order to get rid of this body, visible in coarseness it should be realized through a practical study from within ownself, that this body is not of an existence at least even for an iota, m reality thought exists m the convention. If it would not happen so, the realization of super mundane Extinction, the Nibbana that arises at the omission from mundanity would not be achieved. While the scientists reveal through physical science that all matter is created by the elements of solidity, fluidity motion and heat; they further state that the original nature of those densities is a particular stage similar to an atom. This particle is introduced as the corporeal group in the Pali text. The composition and the activation of a corporeal group is to be studied deeply. Particles of dust, chalk powder or flour are visible tiny figures. Take a hit of dust into your palm and puff it off. They scatter away into the air. Why did those particles so scatter into the air'?. Because the dust particles were not combined to each other. They were not combined together means, that they are left alone separately. When they are so kept alone separately a space exist around each particle. Again add a few drops of water to another bit of dust. What happens then? Those dust particles combined to each other. Why did it so happen? It happen so, as the water is absorbed by them. Was the water absorbed by the space around the particles as they were placed alone separately? No, because there was nothing in the space to absorb water. Therefore any absorbent cannot be functioned in the outer space.
39 | P a g e
If it is so, the water would have absorbed into the space within the particles itself. There is a space in that particle means that there is an emptiness or a space in the dust particle too. If it is so, group divisions do exist even in the dust particle, because of the space in it. Thus it is obvious that a dust particle too is a combination of thousands of corporeal groups. Particles of flour, chalk and ash are the same. What does this simple experiment reveal? The reality is that a corporeal group cannot be seen at all with the naked eye. This particular corporeal group is a composition of the features of fluidity the flowing and pasting state, heat means the temperature, motion the moving state and solidity the expansion. Now we will investigate into the activation of this corporeal group. As the corporal group is invisible, it's activation too is the same. This investigation on the activation of the particular corporeal group is not merely a gross organical review but a wise intelligent research. Fluidity the flowing and pouring nature is prevailing in this invisible corporeal group. The quality of solidity too exists here with the state of flowing and pouring. These states exist in the corporeal group together but not separately. So the fluidity ceaselessly convert, into solidity and similarly solidity into fluidity. This antagonistic reaction functions within the corporeal group continuously unceasing even for an instant. When it occurs so, the corporeal group is converted into a continuous motion internally and also outwardly. Heat is hot air. motion too is air. As all these states are in the continuous Motional activation, these substances of great elements named as corporeal groups, are in continuous motion and get destroyed through breaking and bursting out.
40 | P a g e
These corporeal groups are invisible to the naked eye, as they are tiny particles in motion. In this way unless they are all scattered away through breaking and bursting out, at the same spot and alone individually, nothing is left alone as a corporeal group. Go further deep into this investigation. What is the watery state taken as fluidity?. It is an advancement( combination) of hydrogen and oxygen. Though we use as fluidity or watery substance in convention, the principle of it is gas. The heat is the hotness produced in the atmosphere in combustion of oxygen. There is no combustion with out oxygen. If so, what is burnt and heated is the air. By way of warmth produced called the heat is also air. Motion is also the air which is shown under multy divisions. The state of solidity which is taken as the composition of airy reactions of fluidity, heat and motion is also a combination of oxygen and helium. In that point of view all these heapy solids that are subjected to five senses and adopted as a whole world, are only an empty space invisible functioning a continuous destruction, nonexisting even for an instant leaving nothing behind. Now investigate into the matter called "I" The organic figure by the name eye is taken as a gathering of millions of corporeal groups The nature of these corporeal groups is the dispersion through breaking and bursting off individually separately and continuously; at the very same place How do then, two corporeal groups combine together ? It never does. In order to combine them together the dispersion of this continuous motional activation is to be ceased. It wouldn't cease at all. Then whether the organ called "eye" is there in convention, when it is considered in reality it reveals that it is only the concept of "there is an eye" formed through ignorance Though the place
41 | P a g e
taken as 'the' ear too is a composition of millons of corporeal groups, there too the corporeal groups disperse individually and separately at the very same spot, instant by instant through breaking and bursting off. Even there not a single corporeal group is left remaining. If it is so, what is taken as nose too is only a concept formed through ignorance. As the corporeal group of tongue too disperses individually and separately at the very same place instantly through breaking and bursting out, when it is taken in reality: neither a tongue nor a corporeal group is left behind there. What is being there is only the so-called concept of "there is a tongue" formed through ignorance. What is taken as the body too is the conclusion taken as the gathering of millions of; corporeal groups. Those corporeal groups too disperse one by one individually on the spot constantly through breaking and bursting off .It is true that a body or matter is existing in convention. But in reality not only a body but even a single corporal group does not exist. "The body exists" is a concept formed by ignorance; as said- "Volitional actions are conditioned through ignorance" (avijjā paccayā, sankharā) You would be capable of understanding, that there is nothing left behind to be taken as an eye, ear, nose, tongue or a body except through insight. It is the conclusion of the majority that when one corporeal group is destroyed another corporeal group will come into being. A corporeal group having come into being, if (it) is to be unaffected, the continuous motional dissolution which, functions in it, has to be inactive. That activity does not stop even for an instant. Therefore although there is a conclusion of a reexistence of a corporeal group in convention, but in reality such a thing would not happen. It should not be forgotten that even the invisible corporeal
42 | P a g e
group would be caught in the motion of time. For a corporeal group to exist for an instant the movement of time should be stopped even for an instant. Would it happen? It would never. 'I' too do exist in convention. Every thing does exist there. No one is capable of changing or destroying them. What is to be functioned here is only to see within ownself through wisdom is the natural existence of the visible convention. When seen through wisdom it would be comprehended that the place known the whole world, is a state of emptiness nothing remains not even an iota. This destruction occurs through dispersion functioning at an unthinkable speed. Hence this destruction is invisible to the coarse eye. When a fire ball is turned round you see a circle of fire. But is there any circle in reality? Not at all. The circle is seen because of the high speed it turns. All figures including 'I' which are formed of corporeal groups are caught in the speed of the motion of time which moves faster than that of the speed of a turning fire ball. Thus with the destruction caught in time, the substance of great elements which are considered as the components of corporeal groups disperse through constant motion. This high speed destruction is totally invisible. Hence a body in negative is seen as positive, as a fire circle in negative is seen as positive. Although, the nature of the nonexistence of the organic aggregative matter in convention are so clarified, majority of people are tied and believing in convention to be the actual truth. It is an indisputable acceptance that the conventional bodies do exist in convention. That convention too is strictly inconvertible. In the Noble Research which is to be performed for the realization of Nibbāna, what is to be
43 | P a g e
comprehended is only this nature of nonentity of matter. What the Buddha taught as , "yadā pannāya passati" to see through wisdom, is to see the reality of these senses subjected convention from within ownself through wisdom. Do investigate well further into the facts given below about the visible matter, with this example of a coconut. There is water in the white circular kernel inside the heapy figure known as the coconut. There is a hard shell around the white kernel, and again a thick husk of coir over which a stratum attached to the husk like a gum. The upper end of the nut is covered with a cap-top. When this coconut is shaken, the sound of the shaking water is heard to a distance of few feet. How did the sound of the shaking water inside the nut pass through a set of thick coverings'? The sound travels through space is the scientific conclusion . Therefore the sound made inside the nut flew out , as the space inside the nut is connected with the space outside. If it so happens a space invisible to the coarse eye exists through the strata of the coconut. Take a bottle with a hard glass. Fill it half with water. , Plug a cork-stopper hard in the mouth of the bottle and seal it with wax. Now shake the bottle. The sound of the shaking water is heard at a distance of a few fathoms. How did the sound made in the bottle pass through the glass to outside?. The sound travelled through the hard glass bottle. Through the corked bottle the sound emitted cannot be heard if there is no connection between the space inside and outside. If it is the case, there should be space even in the hard glass of the bottle. But it cannot be seen with the coarse eye. Buddha in a previous birth of enlightenment, lost his way in a desert and could not find water. He dug a well in a suitable place. He came across a large stone spread over the
44 | P a g e
bottom. He got down into the bottom, kept his ear on the stone and heard the sound of flowing water beneath the stone. He broke the stone and took water This is an episode of a Jataka story. How did the sound of flowing water, under the large stone, travel up to the surface of the stone? It travelled through the space in the stone. There is no other way for sound to travel through the stone to the surface. As the space under the stone and the space over the stone is connected together with the invisible space in the stone, the sound of the flowing water, was heard through that space. Hence it is obvious that a space exists even in a thick and hard stone. Keep your ear on a rail. You can hear the sound of a train running at a distance of a number of miles. That sound travelled through the space in the rail. Sound does not travel through the rail it' a space does not exist in it. Hence an invisible space exists even in the hard iron. Water born beings live in the sea-bottom number of miles sleep. In those beings too, the respiration of inhaling and exhaling takes place. It occurs so, as there is oxygen in the sea-bottom as well Where there is air, there is space. It shows that the space in the sea bottom is connected to the outer space by the space existing in the sea water. Hence the sea water too consists of a space. In worms and other soil-creatures too, the respiratory procedure is taking place . The respiration taking place means, that the space filled with air exist in the earth. as well. If the space in the earth is not connected with the space on the surface of the earth by a space which exists through the earth, the air needed for the respiration of the soil creatures is not supplied. There is air in the earth means there is space existing in it.
45 | P a g e
Why does space exist in this way in the material and fluid aggregates ?. Many people who think that all the aggregates including the earth are creations of corporeal groups, do not think of their instant dispersion through over speedy breaking and bursting nature. As a result of this high speedy dispersion of corporeal groups, there is a space existing in all the aggregates. In this manner all the fauna and flora of the world, and all of diem taken as multy creations such as seas and oceans, including the body known as 'I', are all substances which do not exist for an instant. This emptiness cannot be seen due to the feebleness of the coarse eye. 'The ignorant people decide that what is seen by the eye is the truth, The wisdom is needed to understand even the matter called the 'eye' that sees the matter does not exist in reality. That is why the Buddha said, "My doctrine, is only for the wise but not for the unintellectuaIs" as, "'pannāwantassāyan dhammō nāyan dhammō duppannassa" The Buddha cleansed the whole corporeal succession including, the corporeality of "I" in a few logics. It was so done because the intelligent levels of every body varies from individual to individual. They were taught considering to capability of comprehension, in each person. Those sermons are classified into three theories. They are the confutative (khandana) theory, amalgamative (sankalana) theory, and the analytical theory of penetration or acute wisdom of insight (vislesana). The first one, the confutative theory is easily understandable and of organ subjected primary stage. Take a body of a man. Separate the head from that body. Would that head now be taken as the very same man? No it wouldn't be. Because it is
46 | P a g e
only a head, but nothing else. Now remove a hand and likewise the other hand too. Again remove One leg, and the other too. In the same way remove both the eyes, and the nose one by one separately. In this manner, when the removal is continued in parts, is there any being existing or any 'limb with such a nose? or any being left remaining to be addressed with a name? No is the only answer. The analytical theory of amalgamation introduced next, is deeper than the first. Before the exactly perfect vision of the reality of the world introduced by the Perfect one, the philosophers; of the early days had revealed that all matters and bodies are the creations of the Great Elements of fluidity, heat, motion, and solidity. But what Buddha has revealed was a profound doctrine exceeding the state of the groat elements too. What he revealed thorough that extremely profound vision achieved by the axiomatic comprehension was that the nature of the great elements introduced in the theory of amalgamation too ends in emptiness or nonentity. Revealing as, "nissattō nisjivō sunnō" he introduced the only vision of the reality of the universe. By this he meant that everything is void and explained the right universal truth. "'These social acceptances of beings and things are conventionally correct. But in reality the truth is otherwise. When impermanent or conventional things are taken as truth, it will lead to, unhappiness and misery. To get rid of this sorrow one should understand that volition (sankhāra) is of transitory nature and impermanent and also subjected to suffering or misery. That was how the Buddha clarified through his, analytical theory of amalgamation the conclusions of pre Buddha epoch, that all the things are creations of great elements. Therefore though everything is existing in
47 | P a g e
convention, but in reality there is nothing permanent or in ego concept. At this stage one should have a clear understanding of the Buddha's main declaration on impermanency, dukkha, and soullessness. He declared that all the conditioned things are impermanent (sabbē sankhārā aniccā) all the conditioned things are dukkha (sabbē sankharā dukkhā.) and all dhammas are without self (sabbē dhammā anattā), here it should be carefully observed that the term dhamma is used with a deep sense much wider than 'sankhāra'. There is no other term in Buddhist terminology wider than 'dhammā'. It includes not only the conditioned things but also the nonconditioned absolute Nibbāna. The state make known as the analysis of penetration in the third theory is also called acute or sharp wisdom. This analysis is deeper in meaning than the earlier mentioned other two theories. When you look at a body of an ordinary man with your naked eye you see the human body. Secondly assume that you look at the same figure through an X-ray frame. Then you would see only the skeleton without flesh and blood. Thirdly assume that you look at the same figure through a microscope . There you, see neither flesh nor blood nor bones. What is visible is only a multitude of micro particles. Fourthly if you look at the same figure through an advanced cosmic ray frame, you would come to know that there isn't any sort of matter in it. Today scientists have invented the cosmic camera and it is being discovered that nothing is seen in the photographs taken by this advanced camera. What is to be realized in this research is that, what is subjected to the coarse senses as the world is not true and there is a more profound reality scattered all over the universe. In
48 | P a g e
order to realize it the only way is the teaching of Buddha. You would say that there is nothing visible in the empty space. Some would say that there is pure eightfold formation of fluidity, heat, motion, solidity, colour, aroma, flavour and essence. and another one would say that the space is full of air. Someone else, would say that there is oxygen, hydrogen and water vapour. Some others would say there are radio waves and electronic rays. Some scientists would say that there are particles of atoms, electrons, protons and neutrons. Those who are well versed in physiology have realized that the particle called 'payon' exists in the space for very short instant of one portion of the second divided by two millions and it converts instantly into the particle of 'mone'; and the neutron is created by the instant convention of the 'mone' particle, and this procedure of physical energy is a state of instant continuous dispersion and it is also an occurrence taking place in space, and also it is of nonexistence. They may declare that this theory is the termination of physiology. Some of the scientists have introduced as a theory that the speed of the physical body is equal to the speed of light. But it is not so. The speed of light is a part of the speed of time. It is accepted that the rays of sunlight take eight point five minutes to reach the surface of the earth. It reveals that the speed of time is faster than that of the speed of light. The rotation of the earth is taken as the speed of time, as the rotation of the earth takes place in an unthinkable fast motion that is invisible to the coarse eye. What is taken as the speed of time is also the same as the invisible rotation. The movement of the second hand of the clock which is used for measuring time is visible
49 | P a g e
to your eye. What a big delusion is it to calculate the movement of time, which functions at an invisible and unthinkable speed concurrent to the invisible and over speedy rotation of the earth, with a ,visibly moving second hand of a clock? All the scientists of the world had introduced all their theories and principles within this adopted and organ-subjected timic frame. Though the scientists say that there is no movement at a motion of an unthinkable speed the worldly physical researches of the scientists are incapable to reveal that the speed of time that exceeds all the speeds in the world except the speed of mind , does not cease even for an instant at all, and everything involved in the unceasing movement of time is destructed wholly and there is no possibility of being a birth and where there is no birth there wouldn't be anyone to die. It would have to be revealed only through the supra mundane Noble Research, more profound, untamed, unmundane and unphysical, introduced by Buddha through his great wisdom. As the movement of time doesn't cease even for an instant no matter will remain unchanged even for an instant. If a body or a matter is to exist for an instant the motion of time is to be ceased for an instant. It would not happen in any form. So the whole world including the body called 'I' is a complete destruction without even an iota remaining. Though they who have established on the basis of the permanency of visible bodies, introduce different theories of the matter, The intellectuals who are engaged in 'the Noble Research understand that when there is a birth in the unceasing motion of time the being born dies within the same birth involved in the movement of time. What does the Buddha who conquered the infinity cleanses
50 | P a g e
through his eternal doctrine reveal' to the world being? It is an extremely profound reality that emphasizes in the fixed impermanent nature there is nothing to be called a present birth or a birth after, a sun or a moon, an up or a down, a length or a breath, a doer or a causer, a creature or a person or even a being to be born spontaneously. Except he had advised to makeout the whole world including the 'I' which exists in convention investigating through within ownself, in order to understand the reality, but never had he said to reject the convention. The convention cannot be rejected. As long as the conception that functions due to the causality is upheld, the convention too exists till then. That is why Buddha. said that the Dependent Origination (paticca samuppāda) which creates the convention, functions forever whether the Buddhas are present or absent. The Buddha sermonized Dhamma during the period of forty five years after the Enlightenment, in accordance with the six spheres and aggregates which had come to exist due to the Jaw of cause and effect. He had never used to exclude conventions in his outward behaviour, other than he worked through the realization of the doctrine of cause and effect. Although it has been clarified with evidential proofs indisprovable with logical arguments, many people are incapable to understand the nature of the constant destruction of all the beings including the being of "I' and all others seen as aggregates- or heaps at the very same place through breaking and cracking off without a single corporeal group remaining. The main obstacle for all the people to realize Nibbana is the fine material world that creates through clinging occurring outwardly. The most worthy necessity is to identify the nature of the fine material world through investigation.
51 | P a g e
Pay your attention on a baby born today. The baby is facing up calm and quiet. He bears no perceptions of feeling as; this is 'I', my eye, my ear, my nose, my tongue and my body. Also no perceptions as of this is my mind, my consciousness and my thoughts; and also no identifications as my mother. father. relation, friend, enemy or my neighbour. He hears no concepts of not only the mirage like time, which is impossible for many to get rid of but also of the heaven pure abodes, the worlds of the departed, the world of the Titans or hells or of gods, Buddhas, Buddhahood or the Ultimate reality the Nibbana. More even he doesn't know of his sex, whether male or female not even pain or comfort in him or bear no feelings of anger or hate. This baby who is unaware of even birth and death doesn't know even it is or it is not. This position where there is no values or costs or classifications of any sort whatsoever is a strange state neither- pleasant nor unpleasant. This little one who was facing upward, turned downward and then onward it started gathering knowledge. The neighbours including the mother and father were near by supported him. All the perceptions introduced to him by others with different names, were collected by hearing with the ear. The child who studied the conception of eye, identified what strikes with the eye as the corporeal conception of colour; Who studied the conception of ear, identified what strikes with the ear as the corporeal conception of sound. Who studied the conception of nose, identified what strikes with the nose as the corporeal] conception of smell. Who studied the conception of tongue identified what strikes with the tongue as the corporeal conception of taste. Who studied the conception of body, identified what strikes with
52 | P a g e
the body as the corporeal conception of contact. Who studied the conception of mind, identified the conception arises there in the- mind as the corporeal conception of thought; and thus a conceptional. world is created by him within his ownself. Coming into the illusion that it is 'I' who is in The conceptional world and creates a 'my knowledge' gathering further many more things from the outer world. The whole awareness. or knowledge including the concept of 'I-ness' and 'myness' so collected is known as the consciousness. Buddha declared that this whole consciousness is an illusion, as "mayūpamā vinnānan". This being (child) who was born free from conceptions proceeds in a process of existence. taking' conceptions and building the consciousness. In this journey of continuity of existence, subjecting to ageing and sickness, from the conventional birth up to death, experiences feeling performing all in the mind and dies at the end. What would happen at this death? Life disappears. The mind too ends simultaneously. Any perceptions of feeling and knowledge do not remain further in that body. No perceptions are there to say this is I, my figure, my eye, my ear, my nose, my tongue, or my body. That dead one also feels no perceptions, the thirty two impurities or of the group of eight purities (suddhāstthaka of fluidity, heat. motion, solidity, colour, sound, smell, taste and nutritive essence. Not even the conceptions of sun, moon, stars, planets. oceans, villages and colonies and also conceptions of mother; father, children, property, lands, money, honorary titles, gods, heavens, Brahmas, departeds and world of departeds. worlds of Titans, hells, this world. world after, birth. death. merits, sins, sorrows and comforts.
53 | P a g e
Not only that, the perception of mind which perform them. all were in the consciousness which was formed within ownself through ignorance. Those who chase after this mirage like consciousness with thirst and greed concepts, reincarnate, die and stiffer- continuously in the cycle of continuity caused by that illusive consciousness. But the people who make out this illusion of consciousness and cease from that illusion before the conventional death, would realize the truth, having attained to the cessation of conception which is the end of the conscious, at an instant in this very birth. The whole world of fine materials including the material of 'I' which has become an obstacle to the realization of the truth is only a mental image 'formed through ignorance. The five senses and colour, sound, smell, taste and contact that are subjected to senses, the mind and mentalities are all but mental images formed through the concept of thinking. The fine material world which' is summed up in this manner is only a heap of mental images. They do not exist even for an instant, but break, crack and disperse on the spot, as a lump of foam at the foot of a water fall, flowing down from a rock which is created by itself instantly and breaks off at the same instant. These mental images too are created instantly and broken off at the same instant. That is why Buddha said "pēna pindhūpaman rūpan" which, means, making mental images and lumps of foams are of similar nature. When the concept disperses through breaking and bursting what would happen to the sensuous feelings received with the assistance of that concept?. The sensation experienced through that concept breaks and bursts off in immense speed corresponding to the high speed of breaking and
54 | P a g e
bursting off of that concept. It is clarified that the sensation too is dispersed in the same way as the bubbles emerged with the foams are dispersed. Thus said, "vedanā bubbulupama" means, the sensation is similar to the bubbles. A sensation is felt on the base of mental images through the conceptions of different sensations . When the mental image breaks and cracks off, the sensation created homomorphously (in the same form,) with the mental image too disperses. The mental image and the sensation break off together and simultaneously means that the perception of sensation emerged there too breaks and bursts off. When every perception of sensation emerged there breaks off instantly and disperses without remaining, not a single perception remains. So it is taught that perception is a mirage, as said, "maricitūpamā sannā" When the mental image, the sensation which is the base of the mental image and the conception which is the base of the sensation are all destructed through breaking and cracking off with nothing- remaining would a thought or a formation occur? However a thought would not form or remain there. Therefore it is taught that the formation of the thought is of no essence. So there is nothing remaining in the thought as the thought is similar. to a fragile pith of a plantain tree where a hard core is not to be found when all the outer layers are removed. And so, the thought is like a plantain tree. Thus said, "sankhārā kadalūpamā" When the mental image it's sensation, the perception which created the sensation and the formation or the thought (object) which is built in combination of them, are all destructed
55 | P a g e
together with their existence itself. would there be anything really to be called a consciousness Not at all. For the existence of the consciousness the mental- formations should remain. The consciousness emerged there too destructs in concurrent with the fast destruction of the mental formation instantly through breaking and cracking off without remnants. So the Buddha taught what is taken as the consciousness is a nonentity and it is also an illusion. Thus said Buddha
Buddha taught that the whole fine material world including 'I' taken through the conception (thinking) is only a concept and that mentality destroys ;instantaneously through breaking and cracking off. Thus the Buddha said, "lujjati palujjati loko" in order to make known that matter does not exist. The following stanza clears that the feelings of " I .am" and "this is me" arise through ignorance and contact through sensation is felt by the ignorant ordinary people. "Avijjā sampassatēna vēdayitena-putthassa assukhavatō Puthujjanassa asmiti pissa hoti-ayan ahan asmiti pissa hoti" The ignorant people with lack of understanding are led astray that there is a fine material world. It is true that there is a body in convention. But it is only an accepted conventional truth. There is no argument about it . But in reality the whole world of fine material including the body (of 'I') is only a perceptional mirage made in the illusory consciousness.
56 | P a g e
3 THE REALITY OF THE MIND All states of mind have mind as their forerunner. mind is their' chief, and they are mind made. Everything occurs with the prominence of mind . Thus says the pali text: "Manō pubbangamā dhamā - manō setthā manō mayā" The pleasant feeling arises through verbal or physical actions follows one as one's own shadow throughout one's lifetime without leaving one. The unpleasant feeling such as anger arises through verbal and physical actions follows one oppressing one even as the Wheel follows the hoof of the draught-ox. Thus said: 'Manasā cē pasannēna bhāsativa karōtivā. Tatōnan sukha manvēti cāyāva anupāyini Manasā cē paduttena bhāsativa karōtivā Tatōnan dukkha manvēti cakkanca vahatō padan " Following of the own shadow represents the state of calm and coolness depression or harm does not emerge in a shadow . But the following of a wheel with it's rattling sound is oppressive and troublesome. Pleasant feelings of calm and coolness are clung as comforts. But unpleasant feelings that depress the mind are clung as suffering. Whether it clings as comfort or suffering, sensation exists there. 'Where the sensation exist the ongoing of continuity is to be expected. As far as the conception prevails the 'kamma' (action) functions there. That is why the Buddha said "cētanāhan bhikkhave kamman vadami". The mind that leads in the formation of kamma is made with the effect
57 | P a g e
of conception. Thus said: "cintana- mattan eva cittan,' the Buddha who clarifies in this stanza "arammana vijanana lakkhanan cittan" that the characteristic of mind is giving birth to objects and further says, that the cessation of dukkha is the cessation of perception, having ended formation of kamma freed from mind and all the conceptions. The being suffers in the continuity of existence, proceeding with birth and death until one is not freed from the conception taken as the kamma. In order to achieve the cessation of thoughts a profound; study is essential to understand the structure of thought and consciousness which is created on the base of that thought and to Know what is the reality of the mind built in the creation of that consciousness. The Noble Ones as the Buddha and Arahants who had ended the dukkha, of continuity of existence, have achieved those extinguishments as they have seen realistically the mirage of mind from within ownself. The Noble Ones who have realized that reality have explained that- the mind is the cause of kamma and exists endowed with kamma which comes into the being by means of mind and that mind assists kamma maintaining relations with it. Thus said: "kammassa kōmhi - kamma dāyadō - kamma yōni - kamma bandhu kamma patisaranō - yan kamman karissāmi kalyānan vā pāpakan vā - tassa dāyātdō bhavissāmi' The nature of the mind, the consciousness, the thought, the process of consciousness and the consciousness moment are to be seen as a very complex confusion to all other ignorant beings who had not seen the reality of mind from within ownself. Those normal beings who are in the continuity of existence for over billions of births continue in the dukkha of cycle of rebirth in becoming, ageing, getting sick and dying because of
58 | P a g e
the incapability of realizing the reality of mind which is formed by ignorance. Certain intellectuals who lived in the days of the Buddha had attained Ultimate Reality the Nibbana, even when they were clarified ; with that this illusory mind is an effect of a cause, and that cause and effect both are built by ignorance and with the cessation of the cause of ignorance the effect of mind too, would cease and thus the cessation of cause effect prevails and so the cessation of perception takes place, and this state is Nibbana. That group known as "Uggatitanna' (known through striving). There were some others who comprehended the philosophy of Buddha with great- courage through debates and discussions. They realized the mind, the basic cause of Dukkha, and attained Nibbana. That group was called "vipatitanna" (known- through reviewing). There were some others who are endowed with great courage to be freed from mind, having recognized it„ equipping: through the cycle of existence up to this day. They who are known as "Neyya" (Known exactly) would definitely attain Nibbana getting rid of all flames of suffering. The only process to be applied is to be engaged in the Noble Research to be aware of the real nature of mind. This touring of the continuity of existence would never end in any other way. Many scholars express different opinions about the mind. Definitions are introduced that which is named as "manasa" is a synonym to 'citta' The mind is also classified into four categories . as the conscious mind, the sub conscious mind. pleasant mind and well pleasant mind and the procedure of each mind is such and such. Some declare that the mind (citta is one and the mental factors (cētasika) or thoughts is another. and the mind is an invisible active state existing in the space or the universe and it is called the common
59 | P a g e
mind (podu mana) and all the beings live in this common mind and that common mind exists in the space even if the world beings are absent in it. There is a handful of others who introduce misconceptions that where there is life, there is mind' also. So they believe that the mind exist even in plants as well' but that mind does not take objects. There are some others who say that the mind or the consciousness is connected with the heart which is similar to a half of a curved palm (ada patha). Assume that a heart removed from an individual is grafted to another. Then does the man with the new heart talk. behave and walk in the manner of the heart donor? Assume that the donor of the heart possesses a multitude of knowledge with him. So does the new heart bearer get that multitude of knowledge possessed by the heart donor. The answer is No. Similar experiences are found in the modern health field today. What does it reveal? It reveals that the consciousness which bears the knowledge is not connected with the heart. It is so in conventional terms , and it is not wrong to use this procedure too in conventional introduction. But it is not the real truth. The impartial learned intellectuals declare that the mind is a complex quest and the modern psychoanalysts who are exploring the different features of mind have not been able to give a significant commentary on the reality of mind, and the theories and principles they have introduced are complicated. The Buddha was the only one who revealed the reality of mind by his own wisdom to the world beings. Buddha appealed to the people to come and see into the doctrine taught by him, with his popular expression, "ehi passiko bhagawata dhammo" Then one will understand that the mind is a mirage. If so, what one should do is to turn back and come into
60 | P a g e
the mind and see it in the way he taught. The Buddha clears the state of mind in the words, " pabhassara midan bhikkhavē cittan pancakhō āgantukēhi upakkhilēsēhi upakkiliktan" The mind is resplendent (shining) and when it grasps- outward objects through five senses it is stained. The Buddha introducing an infant baby for an example explained that such a mind (that of a baby) has to be pre prepared in order to make obvious the Ultimate Reality, the Nibbana. He made clear that in order to gain such a mind the torrent of continuity that flows down with the current of sense desire (kama oegha), the current of Becoming (bhava ogha), the current of sight or view (ditti ogha) and the current of ignorance (avijjā ogha) should be reversed up-stream and return back again to the original birth place, into the infant's position of facing up and lying on bed and so into the mind of resplendence and purity and thus the attainment of Nibbāna is the cessation of that pure mind at a very short instant. The investigations on mind are made mostly outwardly by the majority. The correct facts on the reality of mind are not revealed as far as such attempts are done. The creation and activation of mind do not function outwardly. It happens in one's ownself. So the investigation on mind is to be done with the attention paid into one's ownself. In the Metaphysics (abhidhamma) the mind is defined as thus: The mind the mental factors are called "ēkuppāda" (born together - same birth) as they arise and exist together and are inseparable. They are called ēkānirōdha" (cease together - same cessation) as the mind and mental factors cease together. They are called " ēkālambana" (object together -same object) as the mind and the mental factors are endowed with the characteristic of continuously going on
61 | P a g e
breaking and cracking off simultaneously. And they are called ' ēkawattuka" (upheld together - same ground) as they exist in the same state, found on same ground (the existence in the five aggregates and five aggregates of clinging). What was called by the Buddha inviting to come and see, is this Noble Research of the natural procedure functioning in one's ownself. It is true in convention, there is a mind that can be subjected to different divisions and classifications. There is no argument about it. But what is to be investigated is to see whether the mind in convention can be found in reality, in order to put it into different classifications and divisions when investigating sharply into certain things happening in the natural environment some procedures occur in the manner that a mind is used at places where a mind is not be used. See the function in a plant and a creeper. The' respiration' of a plant occurs through leaves. What occurs spontaneously in a being too is the same procedure of respiration. But many people think that the being respires purposely. When one is in deep sleep or is anaesthetized respiration occurs automatically without a doer or a causer. Respiration, digestion and, palpitation are involuntary- actions in a being. The involuntary procedure of respiration in a being is similar to that of a plant. So when a being is awake the respiratory procedure continues. A plant dies when it does not get food and water. The plant too makes it's food and drink by itself even though it does not possess a mind. There is no connection of a mind with that procedure.
62 | P a g e
It has been shown through telecines how some carnivorous plants in foreign forests get hold of certain animals passing by with their branch roots and keep, in their custody for their nutriment. What has occurred there too is a procedure free of a mind. There are certain types of flowers which get hold of insects covering them over with the petals immediately after the insect enters into the flower and in due course the insect is consumed by the flower. It is also a mindless procedure. See what is happening in a flower called nepenthos (bāndurā). As soon as an insect enters into the sheath of the flower, the upper lid of it turns down over the insect. It is a hunting mechanism adopted by the plant for food. There also mind does not function. The inland plants known as pila. tōra, and keturumurungā, sleep' at night folding up their leaves and wake up in the morning. The mimosa bush gets folded as in shame immediately after it gets a touch These too are occurrences that take place as if a mind is present. Buddha in his discourses regarding the Ultimate Reality had taught what was happening in the plant kingdom look place with regard to various species. He explained 'kamna round' (kamma vatta) as of the cause and effect. This natural procedure is confirmed with the quotations trout Buddha's own expressions that there is no doer or a gainer of consequences of "kamma" and what exist there is only the natural state of Truth-arrived (Tathagata). He advised that instantly what occurs within one's ownself as only a natural procedure tree of a doer or a causer. with wise or thorough attention and being awakened and with heedfulness. He advised so as a step taken on account of making the ordinary beings to get rid of the attachment and cease them front the thirst. The mind is not of perceptible nature. The functioning of the mind has no connection with the activation of the senses. Therefore the investigation on mind should be and can
63 | P a g e
be done only through wisdom. The mind should not, be investigated with the view that the mind is mine. If it is so it causes confusion. A shadow is a common notion or a mere conception. But when it is taken separately as a shadow of 'mine', of a tree or of a stone it brings about a view that it belongs to some particular item. Keep some water basins in the open air in a moonlit night. You would see the image of the moon in each basin. But there is only a single moon in the sky. In the same way keep a few water basins in the open air when the sun is in full colour. You would see the image of the sun in each basin. But there too we see the single sun. In the same way though the men have classified the minds as mine or his it is only a common concept. As such the mind is to be investigated in the concept of a common mind, not belonging to any one. This mind which is created as the doctrine of cause and effect, is considered as a gathering of a lineage of thoughts. The name called mind too is a derivation of the mind. Accordingly there is no mind where there is no conception. The thought is a creation of the attachment of the process of consciousness. A thought arises and ceases and then appears the next thought. Two thoughts do not appear simultaneously. Thus all the sounds arisen early up to the instant before had ceased in their arising itself. Assume that the thought arises at present is 'chair'. There the syllable 'cha' came first. And then the syllable 'ir' followed. These syllables were not in combination together . If they are to be combined, the first syllable has to remain there waiting for the second one. But they do not remain or exist even for a single instant. Both the syllables ceased in the arising itself individually. There by the thought of 'the chair' too subjected to cessation in the
64 | P a g e
origination itself. When it occurs so. the instant in which the thought arose, too ended and has gone into the past. So all the thoughts that arose up to this instant joined with the past, in the procedure of cessation in the origination. But none of them had remained. If Those thoughts that were gone to the past are to be maintained again collecting them, the being called 'I' should be in existence in the past. If there was someone or something prior to this instant. all that phenomena could break and disappear with the ending of that instant.
As such, there is no T to remain up to the previous instant in the past, no five senses, a mind, a thought, a process of consciousness or even a consciousness moment to remain. 'When it occurs so does a consciousness remain with concepts such as of colour form, sound form or smell form ? Nothing remains at all. At where the consciousness is ceased totally would it remain there, anything visible. outwardly as, fauna or flora; sun or moon, stars or planets or sky or earth.? Not even an iota will remain. When all these end. the ignorance that was there up to the last instant too would disappear without an iota remaining. In that case. where will all these reassemble?. During the instant which is taken as the shortest unit of time, a multitude of consciousness processes such as forms of colour, sound smell, taste and contact are ceased in their arising it self, through breaking and cracking off. These five categories of mental process do not arise simultaneously because two mental processes do not arise at the same moment. One mental process arises. It ends in the arising itself. Another one arises. It too ends in the arising Itself. In this manner, every mental process disperses through breaking and cracking one by one
65 | P a g e
individually, separately, on the spot and joined to the past. A mental process is a gathering of multitude of consciousness moments. What is the nature of a consciousness moment? whatsoever two consciousness moments would not appear together at the same time. One consciousness moment arises and after the cessation of it the second one arises . Before it arises the first one ends and joins to the past. Therefore the first one is not connected to the second. In this way, as the first before the second, the second before the third, etc. all the consciousness moments disperse one by one, individually instantly on the spot through breaking and cracking when evenconsciousness moment is destructed and joined to the past, would there be a single consciousness moment to exist in this instant. The answer is no. In this instant, which is taken as the present where even a single consciousness moment is nonexisting, how does it create a mental process gathering those consciousness moments together? Such a thing would never happen in reality. Where there is no mental process, (citta veeti) created would there be any method for a thought to arise caused by the clinging (upādāna) of that mental process? Can we decide that such a thought would arise? In reality we cannot decide in favour. When a thought will not appear accordingly could a collection of thoughts be found in consciousness in reality? It would not so happen in reality. Would there be such an illusion or ignorance other than coming in to a confusion that there is a mind, where there does not remain even an iota of a consciousness moment, a mental process, a thought or a consciousness ? Thus in this way, when there is not even a consciousness moment, does a mind exist: would there be an individuality or ego entity with five senses and a mind: and would
66 | P a g e
there be a corporeal group (rūpakkandha) of colour form, sound form, smell form, taste form and contact form which are being with the association of mind? Would there be senses and an aggregate of sensation (vēdanākkandha) which feels the sensation corporeality? And would there be an aggregate of perception (Sannaskkandha) with signs for receiving the sensation? And would there be also an aggregate of consciousness (vinnānaskkandha) which is created after the functioning of the awareness or knowledge (vinnāna) produced with the effect of the arrangement of the groups of corporeality, sensation, perception and mental formation? So it would be the state of madness caused by the mean generality or mundanity to the clarification of the Buddha. Let us he engaged in a simple research on the reality, functioned in ownself, taking the early mentioned thought of 'chair' Both the syllables of the thought 'chair' do not exist together instantaneously. The first syllable 'cha' comes at first. That syllable and the instant both cease together on the spot and go to the past. Then the next syllable 'ir' comes at the following instant. That syllable too ceases and ends together with the instant at the same time. Except that both the syllables of the thought of ' chair' have gone to the past ceasing separately at two instants, but the conception of 'chair' was never brought in to being by them' Now if I am to make the 'chair' I must go into the past and collect the two syllables together and make it. Otherwise the thought of 'chair' will not appear and thus there is no chair. The thought goes to the past and dies. When the 'I" goes to the past to make the chair, definitely the' I' too will die. What had happened in the tour of existence up to now was only touring in the continuity of existence dying and clinging to thoughts. No thoughts thus remain there. Not a being
67 | P a g e
called 'I' too will remain there. The being who maintains a convention which has not existed in reality, grasping thoughts that are breaking and cracking off, dies thus at every thought. Thus the mind too breaks and cracks off in concurrent to the high speedy motion of the breaking and cracking off of the thought. The only thing that is to be done to exempt from death is to get rid of thought (consciousness or subconsciousness) It is also the escape from mind. too. If you are to escape from functioning of mind you must not go into the past. The thought that arise at this instant give up then and there. Then you escape from thought functioning. Then you escape from the mind constantly and from body, from death and birth and also from Becoming and from ignorance too By getting rid of kamma called concept is the only way to reach Nibbana. I am there, I have a mind, There is an external world. All these conventions have arisen because of ignorance. Look at a dead man. There is no concept of 'I" there. No world of sun and stars. No sons and daughters. No mind, a thought or even a consciousness moment is there. Why it is so? Because the mind disappeared at the death. So all these have existed as the perception kept in the mind. Accordingly the moment of consciousness (cittakkhana) the process of consciousness (citta viti) the mental factors and mind, all these are only the perceptions (sannā) or formations occurred because of ignorance (avijjā). All these perceptions break and burst at every instant and they would not last even for a moment. Many billions of processes of consciousness (cittaviti) at an instant which is to be the tiniest micro unit of time is this speedy process taking place does not come within the purview of the coarse senses. Though
68 | P a g e
in the convention it is accepted that an 'I' and a mind exist, as that destruction is invisible to the eye, in reality no body or mind exist even for a single instant.
69 | P a g e
4 THE REALITY OF TIME Time is valued as gold by those who are engaged in different activities in convention using the time. There are many concepts in use built in accordance with the time divisions. They are in use as soul, centuries, decades, years, months, weeks, days, nights, hours, minutes seconds and moments etc. When defining the cycle of rebirth it is revealed in the definitions made in accordance to the theory of kamma effect from the pre-Buddha era, that the being in this present birth experiences comforts or sorrows relevant to the kamma (actions) in the previous birth, and would be born in a comfortable or woeful course of existence relevant to the karmic effects of this birth. Although these three existences of the birth before, this birth and after birth are being revealed confirming the triple time of past, present and future do not coincide or agree with what the Buddha taught, the majority of the Buddhists are in custody of this so-called soul concept. The learned intellectuals who are engaged in the investigations attached to time, declare in their analyses of different religious and cultural sources, that the conditions of the century before were in such and such forms, and in this century new progressions are shown with those conditions changed in such and such forms and thus on one side though there appeared to be an accelerated physical development progress. Superficially, environmental and human values are to be degenerated due to the evil results of the so-called development progress. In the progressive reviews of the long term projects, the plans are made for the next decade considering the ascending tendencies of
70 | P a g e
the progress of the earlier decade and the performance of the expectations formed through it for the next decade is also a maintenance of co-ordination with the time. The planning of the current year activities is done looking back at the incidents of the previous year with the expectations of leading a comfortable life during the coming year. A systematic program is made for the present month, after reviewing into the shortcomings of the month before, in order to make the coming month freed from deficiencies. When it is taken as last week. this week and next week and making out as yesterday today and tomorrow, the whole world is engaged in a long tour nonstop, linked with the conventional time. Though it is taken as birth before, present birth and birth after or past century, present century and future century or last decade, this decade and next decade or last year, this year and next year or last month, this month and next month or last week. this week and next week or yesterday, today and tomorrow or morning, day and night or last hour, this hour and next hour or last minute, this minute and next minute or last second, this second and next second or last moment, this moment and next moment, all these divisions of time are made in long terms or in short terms, they are only conventional concepts built in the becoming tour of the continuity of existence included in the triple division of time, the past, the present and the future. The whole convention caused by the consciousness or the conception (cintanaya)is built in this triple formation of time. Convention is not created where the time triple (Kalattraya) does not exist. To win the life continuum the birth and death are to end
71 | P a g e
compulsorily. The victory of these two forms is the victory of convention. The victory of convention is the victory of conception. The victory of conception is the victory of consciousness. The victory of consciousness is the omission of colour, form, sound form, smell form, taste form and contact form that assist to feed the consciousness. In order to give up these mental images, the five senses of eye, ear, nose, tongue and body which are the bases of object building should be given up. The sense organs are to be omitted only when one is freed from the mind which is made in ownself in the formation of thoughts which cause to create the world. The thought that goes to make up the mind takes place with the association of the past present and future. The fundamental cause for the procedure of the tour of Becoming or the process of existence (bhava gamana) which enforces the being into endless suffering is the unpunctuality (pamada) which is functioned when caught into the time triple. What is the only thing that is to be functioned zealously (appamada) to be freed from suffering (dukkha)of becoming or cycle of rebirth? Nothing else other than to be freed front the time triple. The Buddha advises thus to be released from it; be released from the past, Present and future and reach the end of Becoming and be a nonreacher to birth, old age illness, and death. Thus said:munca purē-munca puccā -majjē munca-bhawassa paragu Sabbatta mukta mānasō - napuna jati jaran upehisi ti (Dhammapada V 348) Seeing the Buddha is seeing the Dhamma. Where does the Dhamma exists according to the Buddha? It is at the place of nontime. If it is so, can Dhamma be seen through any action done caught in time? It is impossible at all. The world beings who are engaged in a
72 | P a g e
tour of Becoming, using the convention linked with the concept built in time do not realize the Ultimate Reality the Nibbana, because of their inability to be in the non timic state. The Becoming ramble of the beings would end whenever they fall into the nontimic state freed front time triple of past, present and future. Until it functions the ending of Becoming would never happen. In order to be functioned this study of seeing the ending of Becoming caught in time, one must be established in a procedure of getting rid of time, For that purpose one must make out first, what the time is. The rotation of the globe of earth, has been adopted as the motion of time. The time division of past, present and future has become a world convention. Out of it, what is the nature of the concept taken as the past? This world is considered created as a result of the procedures functioned in the eternal universe in the far past. The time from the day it came into being up to now is taken as the past. The time up to the last instant has now worn away. That past has gone and ended. All have finished. None of a being or nothing would he born there again. Thus the past is a state of complete voidness. A being or a person is not there. Neither a doer nor a causer is there, nor one called 'I' nor a mind. nor a relative, nor a friend, nor a father, nor a mother is there. So would there be further a Dependent origination (Paticca samuppāda) or Four Noble Truths at such a place where no one is existing? Where a being is absent no doctrine of cause and effect functions there. Thus the ignorant laws of nature such as the notion of self (sakkāya ditthi) ten combinations (dasa sanyōjana) five Hindrances (Panca niwarana) etc.; are not created in the past up to the instant before. History is a name used to recognize or
73 | P a g e
introduce the state of destruction without leaving even an iota. If not so, it is not an existing history. The devotees who are perfecting on to attain Nibbāna, ceasing from suffering, should be aware that history up to, the last instant is only a mental conception and do leave it off. What sort of a state is the future? A future does exist in convention. But to know the reality of it, should investigate it. when it deals with ultimates in the highest sense. After everything existing in the last instant, ends, all the things including the being reexist in the present instant. What so ever, a birth would not occur in the next instant, other than this instant. The whole eternal range of time from the next instant upward, in which a birth would not occur, is taken as the future. A birth would occur in the future only after reaching there. When the birth occurs having reached there, the future would be converted into the present. Therefore the future is only a perceptive concept made in convention and it can never be met by anyone. Thus the being is still not born in the future which commences at the next instant followed by the instant in which it exists. Therefore a doer, a causer a mother a father a relative, a friend, one called"I" or a mind do not exist there. Within that future where the 'I' or the mind is not existing. would there be a figure formed with senses of eye, ear, nose tongue or body? Certainly not. Where there are no sense organs would there be forms of colour, sound, smell, taste or contact? Nothing at all. In such a place with nothing existing would there be existing a conditioned Genesis or Four Noble Truths? There would not be. Thus the ten fetters (Dasa Sanyōjana) or five
74 | P a g e
hindrances (panca niwarana) would not exist there. So the whole range of time called the future is a state of voidness. Then the future is only an accepted perception used in convention, but not a state existing even for a moment. The devotees who are equipping on for Nibbana, do let off this empty concept of future. The next thing to investigate is that, what is meant by the time called the 'present'. It has been cleared by the logical investigation done so far that the time up to the last instant is the past and the time range from the next instant onwards is the future. Those are only empty concepts. It is a nonlogical absolute truth unbreakable by any scholar to say that it is not so. So then, what is called the present, is only the present instant which is next to the instant before. The being who is not in the past and not yet been born in the future. exists only in this instant. The state of this instant which is taken as the present, is to be studied deeply. An instant is considered the shortest timic range made by time division. The being would not be born in the past which was ended and it is clear through the investigation that a being would not be born in the future too, which is next to the present instant. So the being is always born only in the present instant. A creation of a mind nor a refreshment of it functions. Therefore the mental gift called the mental volition food mano sancetanahara) which is taken by the mind is not consumed. As the material gift of consciousness food (vinnānā āhāra) and mental volition food are not taken at nontimic occasion, having ceased from the triple time, then that state is called dispassion (nirāmisa).A division as past, present and future is made and a conclusion of the existence of a time range are also made by the being. When the time
75 | P a g e
triple ceases the being too ceases. A birth or a death does not occur there. It is called the state of eternity. It is the reality of the state or the nature of the Perfect One (the state of the truth arrived - Tathāgata sobāva) where the state of Enlightenement is reached. This Reality is of nontime (akālike) non-sensitive (avēdita) dispassionate or nonmaterial (nirāmisa) and eternal (sadātana) No birth or death occurs there further. This state of the Perfect One, is the only nature existing eternally all over the world. This Buddhahood exists in the cessation of perception from within ownself, at an instant of non time. The devotees endowed with the qualities of Enlightenment Beings (Bōdhisatta) and who are in the attempt of perfection to attain Nibbāna that quenches the flames of suffering of the cycle of rebirth, in order to see the Buddha exists alive at the non- time, should reach the quality of non- time having refrained from the illusory mist of time.
76 | P a g e
5 THE REALITY OF BIRTH AND DEATH When we think of a birth it is only a birth of a being that comes to our mind at once. But the origin of the earth which cannot he decided exactly, is also a birth of some kind. The creation of vegetation occured as a result of the automatism functioned naturally on the surface of the earth can be considered also as a birth. Since those births had taken place the origination of the living cells existed through a process of environmental evolution is the origin of the animal world. Had the natural procedure of the universe not occured a animal world consisting of multi categorical beings scattered all over the world would not have taken place. The scientists reveal that according to the physical scientific theories made through the scientific researches clone on the world and the being, it had been discovered that the origin or the solar system including the globe of earth, had occured in the far long past through a gigantic explosion in the atmosphere of the universe. It is accepted that with the rotation of the sun at tremendous speed a piece of the sun had broken off and the earth came into being. The preservation of the humidity moisture, coagulation and freezing of frost and ice would be procreated, as the earth is at a far distance from the over heated sun. It could be decided that the natural vegetation is originated with the tiny plants of moss and slime that grew related to humidity and proceeded upto the growth of large forests resulting in the long term evolution. And also it can be decided that an adapted environment with biological factors for the origination of existence of a living being formed with the gathering of oxygen produced through the process of natural respiration of plants.The
77 | P a g e
being born in this environment is named as Amoeba which is composed of a single cell. The scientific conclusion is that the evolution of that being which is considered the animal origin on earth had developed upto the present animal world. Though the scientific view of the origin of the world and the being is so, the awareness of the animal origination in the general usage is very simple. It is that a birth of a child occurs with the cohesion of male and female. The origin of the birth of the world which is known through the conception is true in convention, but in reality it is only a multitude of conscious knowledge. The Buddha made it clear that the consciousness is an illusion. The birth in convention is exposed here in order to assist the reader to recognize the ideal truth clarifying the Ultimate Reality. The Buddha expressed that the birth occured through the conceivability of a being in a mother's womb is the main cause of the suffering of continuity of existence (sansāra dukkha) as stated in the words' "jātipi dukkha' It is stated in the pali text a birth occurs on the basis of the fixedness of law (niyama dhamma) of Temperature seasons (utu) Plant life (bija) Kamma and mind (citta) and Typical occurrence (dhamma) and it exists in different forms such as Oviparous (andhaja), viviparous or Aquatic (jalabuja) water born or from the womb) Moist ( sansedaja born from moisture) and Spontaneous (opapatika) The Discourse Language (sutta desana) in which the world with the beings is introduced with separated divisions of aggregates or groups (skandha) , elements (dhātu) spheres (āyatana) unconceals that all matter or bodies including the body born in a mother's womb are t he creations of elemental energies of fluidity, heat, motion and solidity. The concept
78 | P a g e
of the great elements (mahābhūta)had prevailed among different teachers and believers before the Buddha came into being. These analyses had been allowed by the Buddha, in his discourses preached to the people who had not been able to comprehend the vision of reality at first-hand. These timely discourses are named as sermons pertaining to this birth (dittadhammika) and pertaining to next birth (samparayika) In his discourses of reality preached for the devotees who do search the path for the realization of supermundane Nibbana, the Buddha exposed that the conceptions made on the whole world including the nature of the great elements are only an illusory knowledge of consciousness. He showed that the being is engaged in a endless tour of continuity of existence as far as the consciousness consisted of the thoughts made by ignorance exist in own self. What the Buddha taught in his noble vision is of an Absolute Truth. It is a creation arising through nonconvention. It is an indisputable acceptance that a birth and a death exist in convention. Clarifying the reality of convention Buddha made it clear with reasons that the being is kept in between birth and death because of ignorance. Buddha taught this process of cause and effect as an exception from the nature of being and person and functions without a doer of the action and also without an endurer of the karmic results, and further cleared that at the simultaneous cessation Of the cause and effect one would see the pure noble nature (dilemma) from within own self, the birth and death occur constantly. in order to put an end to birth and death occurring in convention. and further showed the monks how birth and death occur at the same instant. Thus the Buddha said:
79 | P a g e
" Kathmāva bhitthavē jāti ? ya tēsan tēsan sattānan tamhā tamhā satin nikāyē jāti - sanjāti - okkhanti abhi nikkhanti - khandhānan pātubhāvō āyatananan patilabhō ayan ruccati bhikkhave jāti'' "O" monks, what is called birth? The beings would be born and reborn in their own nature of being and person. This incident occurs free from the relations of anybody. This coming into being ends again at the same instant. This process of arising and vanishing occur due to the arising of the concept of spheres (āyatana) caused by the conditioning of becoming (bhava) through aggregates (skandha) I declare this is called the "birth" This is the simple sense of it. This is a doctrine of cause and effect which is of a nature difficult to understand easily, where a being taken as the 'I' who is unborn and what is happening there is only the arising and vanishing of aggregates at the same instant. However if one is not aware of this incident which occurs within own self the desire (tanha) for egoism or the 'I' ness would not end. As far as that desire is unceased the realization of extinction the Nibbāna train within ownself would never he achieved. When it is illustrated here as "Jāti and sanjāti" it means to he born and reborn, to be born again after having been born, a death would have occured there in between them. A being would not be born where a thought does not arise. No birth exists without a being, is as same as no being exists without a thought. If it is so, both the births and the being and the thought should arise together. When the first thought is born, the concept of being too is born with the mind. When that thought ceases within the arising itself the being
80 | P a g e
too dies with the mind. That is the arising and vanishing of one Becoming or Existence (bhava) created in the arising of one thought. Again, when the next thought arises the being would be horn with the mind. when the next thought arises, the being is reborn with the mind, and that being who was born dies again. Again when the next thought arises the being would be born with the mind. when that thought vanishes within the arising itself, the being and the mind born there again end at that spot. This is the formation which has been illustrated as jati and sanjati, meaning, birth and rebirth. This is what is called the tour of Becoming with arising and vanishing of the being thought by thought. Although it is mentioned here, as birth, what is born is only the concept of the being. This process is clearly illustrated in the Dependent Origination (Paticca samuppāda) that the being is born in the Becoming (bhava) caused by the grasping or attachment (upādāna) as stated "Upādāna paccaya bhavō, bhava paccaya jati...," But many people have mistaken the Becoming given here to soul or ego (ātma). This Mala-fide concept or the wrong comprehension of egoism is given to the others by many preachers through their preaching of which the after effects would unfavourably influence the innocent masses fencing the way to Nibbana. The ego or soul is a concept linked with the theory of action and effect (kamna pale vāda) The Becoming or the existence or continuity (bhava) is the theme of the doctrines of cause and effect illustrated by the Buddha. When a Becoming does not arise a birth too would not occur. The formation of a Becoming is only a single instant that arises with the effect of thought caused by ignorance. That is, what is called the Doctrine of Cause and Effect.
81 | P a g e
What was illustrated as 'jāti' is the birth that occurs in the Becoming or in the thought. The word 'okkanti' (coming to be) is used as the arising of the concept of being, is an instant occasion when aggregates arise in the arising of a thought. What is meant by the word 'abhinikkanti (going forth) is the mind was created with the arising of the thought. At the same time the five aggregates of matter. sensation, perception. mental formation and consciousness of the formation (sankhāra) that were objected to the thought would arise. Because of live of the arising aggregates of attachment (panca upadankkandha) took place simultaneously with the arising of five aggregates (pancakkandha) the impressive conceptions of the eye, ear, nose, tongue and body were born. Thereby a conclusion of a being or an 'I' was made through these attachments due to ignorance. (see the next chapter that analyses the cessation of Dependent Origination) The existence of the 'I' or the being occured thus in the arising of a single thought. When that thought vanishes in thearising itself (cessation in the origination) the mind, the five aggregates, the five aggregates of attachment, the concept of the six spheres and the conclusion of the being or 'I' that existed in accordance with the thought too ended. It is this form that was shown in the word 'abhinikkhanti' called as the end of a Becoming too. The Becoming (bhava) which is created with the arising of the thought ceases at the same place when that thought ends. What the Buddha emphasised as the instant death is this same instant- death that occurs at the cessation of the thought. It was clarified to the monks thus: 'Kathamāca bhikkhavē maranan? yā tēsan tēsan sāttha nan tamhā tamhā satwā nikāye
82 | P a g e
cuti- cavanatā - bhēdōantaradanan- maccu maranan- kāla kiriya - kalēbarassa nikkhepo jivitindayassa - upaccēdo ayan vuccati bhikkhavē maranan' 'O' monks, what is death? These beings vanish or die (cuti) in their own nature of being itself. With that same vanishing the concept of being breaks and bursts off. The concept of matter or body and mind too vanishes at the same time. Even the nature called death too dies. The concept of body too releases. The concept of vitality (jivitindriya) goes breaking oft I declare that it is death. This is the simple sense of it. Although it is stated in the Pali text, the five forms of death as the conventional death (sammuti marana), the Eradicative or Exterminative death (samuccēda marana), Action Reductive or declinature death (Kammakkhaya marana) Age Declinatory death (āyukkhaya marana) and Binary declinatory death (ubhayakkhaya marana) It is clear that this is the instant-death. that the Buddha explained in his discourses regarding the Absolute Vision. What the Buddha taught as the Absolute trurh was a doctrine unexisted prior to him. These doctrines of Ultimate Reality were made aware as the doctrine unheard before (pubbe ananussutēsu dhammēsu) Thus what is made clear here of the death is not an introduction of the mere conventional or normal death which exist in the every day usage what is clarified here as beings depart or expire (cuti) in the nature of being and person? The departure or the expiration is the cessation with nothing remaining. What is there to cease. They are the concepts of matter and mind. At this instant death, where those concepts cease simultaneously the concept of being and person too would cease. To occur a death there again, a being or person does not exist there at that instant. Therefore a death would not
83 | P a g e
occur again. Thus the death too would die there. As the nature taken as the dead body (kalēbara) ceases at that instant, there is nothing left to call vitality. It is what is clarified in 'nikkhēpo jivitindayassa upaviccēdō' All the aggregates that arise simultaneously with the thought, die at the cessation within the arising of that thought. In this manner, birth and death occur simultaneously and constantly within a single instant. Had this being called '1', to exist for an instant, death too ceases for an instant. But that death never stops even for an instant. Assume that a man is walking. In that walk when that man raises a leg and set it forward, there the body and mind go on breaking and cracking billions of times. In the same way within the respiratory process the body and mind disperse crumblingand dissolving billions of times. In the same manner at every action, this concept of body and mind disperses crumbling and dissolving at great speed. The body vanished once, would not he born again. What is to be born is a concept of another body. The mind once vanished too wouldn't be reborn. What is to be born there too, is only a concept of another mind. What happens when it is confirmed due to the impressive spiritualism, egoism, or the self vision (atta ditthi) that a body and mind exist there? It is only an instant dispersion of aggregates built based by the effect of thought arisen due to ignorance. In reality a being, person, mind or a consciousness do not exist. Though there is a birth and a death in convention. in reality when anyone or anything is absent, would there be a birth or a death further? No there's not. What is called the tour of Becoming or rambling about in the cycle of rebirth? A thought arises. The mind too arises simultaneously with the arising of that thought. Within the
84 | P a g e
same arising of the mind. the five aggregates of matter. sensation, perception, mental formation and the consciousness too arise With the same arising of five aggregates, the five aggregates of attachment (panca upādānakkhanda) occur. Within that attachment six spheres or bases of mental activity (salāyatana) the concepts of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and the mind too appear. When all these do appear. a being is formed due too the misconception of ego entity. This is a process taking place within a single thought. When that thought ceases within it's arising, the very process mentioned too ends. Every thing with the concept of the '1' vanishes there without remaining A thought comes again. There Non-self- made theory (Sayankata Parankata vāda) and the theory of Act of non-self. Act of Non-alien or Spontaneous and Uncausal Genesis (Asayankāra Aparankāra Adhicca Samuppanna vāda) etc. were investigated. it was known that a concept of ego with the nature of being and person was included in them. It seems in the self- made theory (sayankata vada) an appearance of eternal vision exists there. This theory which evolves of a conversion of cause into effect, resembles the theory of action and Effect (Kamma pala vāda) rather than the theory of cause and Effect. The Alien-made theory (Parankata vada) that emphasizes the non- relations between the Cause and Effect introduces many different divisions of timic theory (Kāla vāda) Destructive theory (lsvara vāda) Natural theory (sobāva vāda) Karmic theory (Kamma vāda) and Definitive theory ( niyati vāda)This theory of Alien-made (parankata) puts forward a complex problem that whether one of the concepts of the time, the destructor (isvara) the Nature, the Kamma and the Fate, would be the cause and it makes
85 | P a g e
no connections with that of the effect. What the self-made and non-self-made theory introduces is an equivocal concept that the forms introduced by both the early mentioned theories would neither happen nor wouldn't happen. The act of non-self-deed, the act of non-alien deed and uncausal genesis theory (Asayankāra Aparannkāra Adhicca sammuppanna vada) emphasizes that the nature of sufferings and comforts function spontaneously without any relations of a cause or of an effect. This definition is stated here in brief, to remind the reader that at the same period when the Buddha taught a doctrine of too he had shown. Of such wise is the Great Recluse' This was the introduction given. "Katamāva bhikkhavē paticca samuppadō- jati paccayā bhikkhavē jarā maranan uppādavā tatnāgatānan anuppādvā tathāgatānan Minim sādnatu dhammathitatā dhamma niyāmatā idappaccayatā tan tathāgato abhisambunjati' As thus Buddha made a brief definition on the Dependent Origination. "O" monks, what is called the Dependent Origination? Dependent on birth arises decay and death. During the period of the existence of a Buddha or not the nature of conditioned genesis was the same effect of Becoming. What operates the condition too was the same effect of Becoming. The effect that arises from the conditioning and the Becoming linked with that effect too existed . This is the simple sense of it Thus the arising of the heap of concepts of aggregate of matter, aggregate of sensation. aggregate of perception, aggregate of formation, aggregate of consciousness and the six spheres which are the essential factors for the production or existence and operation of the effect (thought) is called the dependent Origination. What is clarified in this definition is that as long as the being is attached to
86 | P a g e
ignorance, the Dependent Origination is functioning. The Noble Ones who had conquered birth and death having realized the reality of ignorance and attained the cessation of Dependent Origination, clarified the reality of the nature that functions as the doctrine of Cause and Effect.Venerable Ananda once addressed the Buddha, 'Venerable Sir, This Dependent Origination is very simple’. Then the Buddha replied, ‘No Ananda, don't say that, this Dependent Origination is more profound'
After the realization of this profound doctrine the Buddha once had a slight refusal of exposing the doctrine because of it's enormousness. But later the Buddha decided to expose the doctrine with the Dependent Origination in favour of pro bono public (bahu Jana hitāya). hitāya) hitāya) hitāya) hitāya) h hitThe functioning of the Dependent origination is to be well investigated. The Dependent Origination can be expounded as the simultaneous origination of the multitude of causes and means. If one does come to the conclusion that this collection of origins or causes and means is a being, then there itself the path leading to Nibbāna would be closed. If anybody expresses in discourses on the Dependent Origination, that what is existing here is a being, it would be a tender utterance as an expression of an ignorant young one. It is misleading for those who are in search of Nibbāna. The Dependent Origination is a doctrine of cause and effect that causes and means arise and cease at the same time. This doctrine which is not linked with the theory of the Action and Effect (kamma phala vada) is only an origination and cessation of the concept of aggregates. As thus no existence of a nature of being and person is there. It is stated in the Pali text, as "hewn paticca sambhūtan hetu bhangā
87 | P a g e
"nirujjati" it means that they appear as being and existing because of ignorance, and when that cause ceases, the effect that created it too is destroyed and thus functions the Cessation of Cause and Effect. The Buddha who explained to the monks what ignorance is, emphasized that it is the unawareness of what suffering is, it is the unawareness of the arising of suffering, it is the unawareness of cessation of suffering and it is the unawareness of knowing the path leading to the cessation of suffering. The same in the Buddha's words. "Tattha kathamō avijjā? dukkhē annānan - dukkha samudayē
annānan-dukkha nirōdha annānan, dukkha nirōdha gamini patipadāya annānan ayan vuccati bhikkhave avijjā" It is cleared in these words that the ignorance is the unawareness of the Four Noble Truths of suffering, the arising of suffering, the cessation of suffering and the path leading to the cessation of suffering. The Dependent Origination occurs by ignorance, and ignorance is created caused by the want of knowledge of the Four Noble Truths. So it is clear that both of these doctrines are linked together and arise together "yōpaticca samuppādan passati - so dahamman passati yō dhamman passati - sō man
passati"These words which declare that, one who sees the Dependent Origination sees the doctrine, and one who sees the doctrine sees the Buddha, clarifies that to see the dependent Origination is to see the Four Noble Truths. Both these profound doctrines arise and cease simultaneously at the same place. It is nothing but only this instant - cessation that is introduced in different means such as cessation of the Dependent Origination, the insight of the Four Noble Truth, the gaming of the right view, attaining into stream- entrent, the first stage in the realization of Nibbāna, seeing the Buddha and attain Nibbana.
88 | P a g e
The Dependent Origination taught by the Buddha shows that it occurs on twelve reasons. Those twelve facts are explained as, "avijja paccaya sankharā - sankhāra paccaya vinnānan- vinnāna paccaya namā rupan- namā rupa paccayā salāyatanan - salāyatana paccayā phassō phassa paccaya vedanā- vedanā paccaya tanhā - tanhā paccaya upādana -upadana paccayā bhavō- bhava paccaya jati - jāti paccaya jara marana soka parideva dukkha domanassa upayāsa sambhavanti' Dependent on ignorance or lack of knowledge arises volitional actions or thoughts or kamma formations: Dependent on volitional actions or thoughts arises consciousness; where the consciousness is created, there exist mind and matter or mental physical phenomena and caused by them, arise spheres of senses (salāyatana) or faculties. Those faculties cause to contact and then get to sensation or feeling. Through feeling arise, desire thirst or craving (tanhā) Through craving arises grasping or clinging which leads to the process of Becoming where the concept of being exists. This existence of the concept of being is subjected to the concept of birth decay, illness and death etc. Thus this process is well explained. It is stated in the higher doctrine, the metaphysics (Abhidhamma) what is meant by decaying ageing is the maturing or perfecting of mental formations or conditioned things (sankhāra) having ceased the speed of arising and thus the downfall or demolition or the vanishing of the formation is the instant - death. The Buddha who clarifies that the Dependent Origination occurs within own self further shows that the world which is created within own self, along with that process is constantly breaking and crumbling off and dissolving. This process is of nonstop nature occurring within ownself creating the
89 | P a g e
concept of matter and mind that dissolves through breaking up and crumbling off. The only fact that is clarified of this process is the simultaneous origination and cessation of the whole set of twelve forms of the Dependent Origination where a process of breaking up and crumbling off is in action, a continuation of Dependent Origination does not occur thus the Dependent Origination is a nature of simultaneous vanishing within arising itself. What the Buddha introduced as the constant breaking and crumbling world is the concept of matter and mind. What is called 'I' is a destructed matter that has been crumbled off simultaneously within the origination caught in time. If the matter is to exist for an instant, the motion of time is to be stopped for an instant. It does not so happen. So then what exist here is only a concept that there is body called 'I' .When the being called 'I' is dead, that concept which was taken as 'I" too dies. How does this so happen? It is because the mind is eliminated at death. If so the 'I' too has existed only as a thought in the mind. That thought too is of a nature of dispersion through breaking up and crumbling off. Why does this world of mind which is created within ownself disperse constantly? What is taken as the mind is of a nature considered as a collection of a multitude of thoughts. The thinking of mind too exist in that same illusory mind. What is the nature of these thoughts? It is stated here that a thought is a collection of multitude of mental moments (cittakkhana) When mental moments break up and crumble off separately neither a mind nor a thought is created. Anybody would understand that where there is not at least a single thought remaining a mind too doesn't exist, where there is no mind, a being doesn't exist at all. That is why it was exposed that not even a mother or father but also a being is not to be born spontaneously, as stated in the discourses of metaphysics (Abhidhamma) as 'natthi
90 | P a g e
mātā, natthi pitā, natthi sattā ōpapātika" How is the body and mind created simultaneously at such a place where anything or anybody does not exist? This is the greatest problem that is to be solved. Everything that occurs including the arising of thoughts up to the instant before is ended Thus up to the last instant everything that is of a being, a person, a doer a causer, an 'I' a mind. A consciousness or ignorance ended with nothing remaining. Would a thought arise in the next instant away from the present instant? It would never arise. It is because a being is not born yet in the future which would commence from the next instant. So there (future) too, a being a person, a doer, a causer, an 'I', a mind, a consciousness or an ignorance do not exist. So both the past and the future is fully empty. If so, the being would be born, the mind would be created, the consciousness and the ignorance would arise only at this instant which is taken as the present. The Dependent Origination is the genesis of all that arises in the present instant. What is the only incident functioning at the present instant for the occurrence of all? It is only an arising of a thought. The thought was arisen in the creation of them all, as all of them were created in the arising of the thought. Therefore both these arise at once, together at the same place, at a single instant, but not at two occasions in two forms at two places. The cause and the effect too exist together and they also cease together. The following definition of neither an extract quoted from any text written so far nor from any discourse delivered so far, nor any concept of assumption that it would be so; but a clarification perceived through experience of realistic vision of the real nature of what is taken of a being obtained in an instant. It introduces how the whole process of the
91 | P a g e
Dependent Origination occurs when a thought arises. What the Buddha exposed in sermoning eighty four thousand mass of Dhamma the Triple Canon or three Baskets (tipitaka) of the Basket of Discourses (Sutta Pitakā) the Basket of Metaphysics or philosophy (Abhidhamma Pitakā) and the Basket of Discipline (Vinaya Pitakā) was a profound doctrine clearing the way for all the wise personages to open the path of arising this experience at an instant from within ownself. The Buddha once interrogated what was the deficiency (negligence) in his teaching to end at a single instant, the tour of Becoming the being is engaged in last long roaming about being born in multy existences Thus said Buddha: "sanasāritvā ciran kale anantē jāti sāgare. kōpa majjēyya dhammēsu laddha kiccē niman khananti "That rare instant attainment is meant by the term "dullabhō khana sampatti" In this definition of the Dependent Origination ,the attempt is to make aware as simply as possible clarifying constantly the profound doctrine unheard before. This doctrine might be incomprehensive for the common who are in the conventional procedure But it wouldn't be so difficult for those who are in the attempt of forsaking the convention from within ownself, having comprehended the perfect reality of the convention. "O" Ananda, the doctrine comprehensible for the realization of the Absolute Truth is so little as same as the small quantity of leaves in my fist. "Through this example the Buddha made clear to Ananda Thera, the simplicity of the realization of Nibbana. In order to comprehend the little of that profound doctrine, the definition of the Dependent Origination given here is to be studied with a keen discipline and wisdom of review. The wise virtuous friends with noble
92 | P a g e
qualities would expose that nonlogical doctrine taught by the Buddha. In the definition given below, it is disclosed that when a thought arises how does the consciousness of matter of colour (vanna rūpa), matter of sound (sadda rūpa) matter of smell (gandha rūpa) matter of taste (rasa rūpa) and matter if contact (phassa rūpa) arise and how the sensation of each consciousness is felt, when each of the consciousness arise and how the formation of the perception of sensation occurs and how the concept of six spheres of senses arise on the base of those incidents and how the cessation of the Dependent Origination occurs ending all those concepts when that thought ends. In order to make it easy to understand, we shall define the thought of 'the mango" Assume that the thought of mango arises in you at an occasion where a fruit or a tree of mango is not visible. Simultaneously with the arising of the thought. the awareness (vijanana) of colour occurs, arranging the process of consciousness (cittaviti) of all the colours of raw mangoes, ripe mangoes, mango leaves, dried mango leaves, mango, tree and mango flower. That is the arising of the consciousness of matter of colour or matter of eye of the thought of mango. (varna rūpa vinnāna or cakku rūpa vinnāna) The sounds of mango too come into mind within the same arising of the thought of mango. Sounds of raw and ripe mangoes, falling down of mango fruits, shaking of mango branches, peeling and slicing the raw and ripe mangoes and the very sound of the word of mango would come into mind. So the awareness of the sounds of mango occur with the process of consciousness of different sounds of mango This is the consciousness of matter of sound or matter of ear of the thought of mango (sadda rūpa or sōta rūpa vinnāna)
93 | P a g e
Along with the arising of the thought of mango, the process of consciousness (citta viti) of smell too arises. The recognition (vijānana) occurs arranging the process of consciousness of a collection of smells of raw mangoes, ripe mangoes rotten mangoes and different kinds of mangoes is the consciousness of matter of smell or matter of nose created in the arising of the thought of mango. (Ghāna rūpa or ghandha rūpa vinnāna) With the arising of the thought of mango, the process of consciousness of mango too arises. The arrangement of the recognition of the process of consciousness of different tastes of mangoes such as the taste of raw mangoes, the taste of ripe mangoes, the taste of young mangoes is the consciousness of matter of taste or the matter of tongue (rasa rūpa or jivhā rūpa vinnāna) With the arising of the thought of mango, the process of consciousness of contact that comes into memory too arises. The arrangement of the process of consciousness or recognition of contacts of raw mangoes, ripe mangoes, rotten mangoes mango flowers, mango leaves and mango tree is the consciousness of matter of contacts (phassa vinnāna). We shall find out next how this consciousness arises. In the arising of the thought of mango. How did the colour of them come into mind? Because all the colours of mango had been seen before with the eye. In order to recognize the colours of mangoes, that thought of mango which arose in the past had been dispersed converting into consciousness moments through breaking up and crumbling off. The eye, which had seen the colours before, and consisted of constantly dispersing up and crumbling off. (rūpa kālāpa) too had been dispersed breaking up and crumbling off. Simultaneously the being called 'I' too had been ended. As a mind does not exist where the
94 | P a g e
being called 'I' too had been ended. As a mind does not exist where the being is absent, the mind too was dispersed converting into consciousness moments. The consciousness that arose there, ended with the mind, at the same place. When they all were so destroyed , the ignorance which arose there too ended. But the ordinary being who does not comprehend this instant destruction is in the attachment (upadana) chasing after the illusory consciousness with the acceptance that the colours of mango seen before and that eye too are still existing. In the arising of the thought of mango, how did the sounds of mango come into mind? Because all the sounds of mango, had been heard with the ear. The thought of mango arisen early had been dispersed at the same place where it arose, converting into consciousness moments (cittakkhana). The ear which consisted of constantly dispersing corporeal groups (rūpa kalāpa) and that used for hearing of those sounds had been dispersed on the spot. The process of consciousness and the mind arisen there too were dispersed. As there was none to maintain a consciousness where the mind, too ended, that consciousness too had ended. When every thing ended there, the ignorance that has arisen too ended completely. The ordinary being who does not know of this instant destruction is engaged in the attachment (upādana) Chasing after the illusory consciousness, thinking that the mangoes which were there before, are still existing, those sounds too are still existing and the one who had heard them all is ‘I’. It should be known that the smells, tastes and contacts of mango had come into mind when the thought of mango arose occurring in the same manner mentioned before. It should be known that in this manner in the endless past, tour of continuity of existence,
95 | P a g e
since the origination of the being up to the instant before, all the thoughts and different consciousness, consisted of crumbling and dissolving consciousness moments, the being called ‘I’ that was created with spheres (āyatana) consisted of constantly dispersing corporeal groups (rūpa kalāpa), the becoming existed then and there, that mind and that ignorance all ended with nothing remaining. The past is an end with nothing left remaining. One's closest end of the past is the instant before. The above definitions introduced to clarify that every thing including the being occurs up to the instant before, it too is destroyed with nothing left remaining. When it so happens this instant which is taken as the present is an empty place where none or nothing has arrived from the last instant. But there is one unavoidable occurrence that happens here instantly. What is it? It is the arising of a thought. The Conditioned Genesis that all the causal origins arise instantly at once is this arising of the thought. The arising of aggregates and the concepts of six spheres within the arising of this thought, is a nature which is to be investigated deeply. We shall define the same process on the same thought of mango. Assume what arose in this instant without any connection with the instant before called the past is the thought of a mango. With the same arising of this thought the consciousness of colour of mango too arises. That is the raising of the mental corporeality of the colour of mango. The mental corporeality (citta rūpa) arises when the sensation of the colour of mango occurs in own self. In order to obtain that sensation of colour corporeality the perception of sensation has to arise. The arranging of that perception of sensation of colour corporeality is called the formation (sankhāra). The recognition (Vijanana) occured in the formation of the
96 | P a g e
perception of the sensation of colour is called the consciousness. That is the arising of aggregates (skandha) of matter, sensation, perception, formation and consciousness that cause to occur the arising of colour corporeality of mango. Had the arising of these aggregates not functioned in this manner, the colour corporeal consciousness of mango, wouldn't have arisen. This is called the perceptive Contriving Consciousness of colour corporeal sensation. (vanna - rūpa vēdaita - sannā sankhāra vinnāna) For the arising of mental corporeality of sound. at the arising of the consciousness of sound corporeality of mango. the sensation of the same should occur within own self. For the function of sensation, the perception of the same has to arise. For the arising of the perception of the sensation of that sound that perception has to be formed (formation sankhāra) The recognition that occurs at the formation of the perception of sensation of the sound corporeality of mango: is called the consciousness. This is the arising of the aggregates of matter, sensation, perception, formation and consciousness, that was created at the arising of the consciousness of sound corporeality of mango. Had this not functioned thus, the consciousness of sound corporeality of mango would not arise. This is called the perceptive Contriving Consciousness of sound corporeal Sensation" of the arising of the thought of mango. (saddarupa vedaita -sanna sankhāra vinnāna) At the arising of the smell corporeal consciousness of the thought of mango that arises at the present instant, the mental corporeality of the same smell would arise. It arises almost in the occurrence of the sensation of the same within own self. That sensation of smell is received at the arising of the concept of that sensation. Arranging the perception of smell
97 | P a g e
is called the formation. The recognition (vijanana) that functions here is called the consciousness. This is the arising of the aggregates of matter, sensation, perception, formation and consciousness of smell corporeal consciousness created at the arising of the thought of mango. Had it not functioned thus, the smell corporeal consciousness of the thought of mango would not arise. It is the 'Perceptive Contriving consciousness of smell corporeal sensation' (gandha rūpa vēdaita sanna sankhara vinnana) of the thought of mango. At the arising of the taste corporeal consciousness of the thought of mango ton, the mental corporeality of taste would arise. That mental corporeality of taste would arise, within own self in the sensation of taste, of mango. The sensation of taste would receive in the arising of the perception of that taste. That perception of taste is made in the formation of it. The recognition occured in the formation of the perception of the taste of mango is the consciousness. This is the arising of the aggregates of matter, sensation, perception, formation and consciousness that occur in the creation of the taste corporeal consciousness of mango. Had this not functioned, this taste corporeal consciousness wouldn't arise. This isthe "perceptive contriving consciousness of Taste Corporeal sensation"(rasa rūpa vedaita sanna sankāra vinnana) of the thought of mango. At the arising of the consciousness of contact corporeality too, the mental corporeality of contact would arise. The mental corporeality arises with the simultaneous occurrence of sensation. That sensation would be received at the arising of the perception of the same. The perception of contact is created in it's formation. The
98 | P a g e
recognition that occurs in the formation of the perception is called the consciousness. This is the arising of the aggregates of matter, sensation, perception, formation and consciousness that occur in the arising of the consciousness of the contact corporeality of mango. Had this not functioned thus, the consciousness of contact corporeality wouldn't arise. This is the creation of the Perceptive Contriving Consciousness of Contact Corporeal Sensation (phassa rūpa vēdaita - sanna sankhāra vinnana) that occur in the arising of the thought of mango. Thus with the arising of the five sorts of consciousness of colour, sound, smell, taste and contact of mango the aggregate of matter of colour, matter of sound, matter or smell, matter of taste, and matter of contact too arose. That aggregate of matter arose having functioned the sensation of each matter, such as matter of colour, matter of sound, etc. Thus with the arising of the thought of mango the aggregate of sensation (of matter of mango) arose. Simultaneously the sensation of the matter of colour, sensation of the matter of sound, sensation of the matter of smell, sensation of the matter of taste and the sensation of the matter of contact arise. When the sensation of the live sorts of colour, sound, smell, taste, and contact of mango occured, the perception of that colour the perception of that sound, the perception of that smell, the perception of that taste and the perception of that contact too occur simultaneously. That is the arising of the aggregate of perception. The sensation of the forms of colour, sound, smell, taste and contact of mango occur in the formation of the perception of sensation, the formation of the perception of colour,
the formation of the perception of sound, the formation of the perception of smell,
99 | P a g e
the formation of the perception of taste and the formation of the perception of contact of mango too occur there with the arising of the aggregate of formation of the thought of a mango. Thus of the thought of mango the recognition occured in the formation of the perception of sensation of colour is the arising of the Perceptive Contriving Consciousness of colour corporeal sensation; The recognition occured in the formation of the Perception of sensation of sound is the arising of the Perceptive Contriving Consciousness of sound corporeal sensation: The recognition occured in the formation of the perception of sensation of smell is the arising of the Perceptive Contriving Consciousness of smell corporeal sensation; The recognition occured in the formation of the perception of sensation of taste is the arising of the Perceptive Contriving Consciousness of taste corporeal sensation; The recognition occured in the formation of sensation of contact is the arising of the perceptive Contriving Consciousness of contact Corporeal Sensation. This is the creation of the aggregate of Consciousness that occurs in the arising of the thought of 'mango' Thus with the arising of the thought of mango in this instant which is taken as the present, the Five Aggregates of the aggregate of matter, aggregate of sensation, the aggregate of perception, the aggregate of formation, and the aggregate of Consciousness would arise in the same instant. Thus the Buddha taught that the spheres (āyatana) arise due to the subjection of five e aggregates into Becoming, and that it is the instant birth. How does this instant birth take place is cleared in the words. "kandhānan pātubhāvo āyatanānan patilābho ayan vuccati bhikkhave jāti". It is to be comprehended through deep investigation, how this
100 | P a g e
conception of six spheres arise in the subjection of the five aggregates in Becoming. When the thought of mango arises in this instant, the colour of mango came into mind, as those colours were known early. They have been known by seeing with the eye. Seeing with the eye is a truth in the convention. There is nothing to argue about it. But when it is considered in reality, the thought arose in the past, that used to identify a colour, had been dispersed on the spot converting into Consciousness moments. As the eye that saw the colours too is created of breaking and crumbling corporeal groups it too was dispersed at the same place. For the existence of the eye and the matter of colour for an instant the motion of time is to be stopped for an instant. Yet it would never happen. Thus there isn't any matter of colour or an eye that will exist up to the last instant. When the being dies on the birth itself caught in the time, the eye too had died with it. So what existed up to the last instant is not an eye existing in reality but only the concept of the eye. The state of concepts is in the nature of constantly breaking crumbling and dispersing. So that concept too had been broken crumbled and dispersed at the last instant. So the concept of eye would rearise corresponding to the thought which arose at the same instant. Thus is in the arising of the consciousness of colour corporeality of the thought of mango which arose at this instant, the concept of eye that had recognized the matter of colour early, arose at this instant too. In the arising thoughts in over speed, as the concept of eye too arises in the same speed. it seems that an eye is constantly in existence. It is only an illusion as when a fire ball is turned round fast, it makes visible a fire round which in reality does not exist. The consciousness of the sound of the thought of mango, was formed, as the sound of
101 | P a g e
mango had been heard before. This incident in the convention is a truth. But when it is considered in realty, the ear is a thing which had been destructed in the existence itself. Then onwards what existed is only a concept made in ignorance. That concept too was destructed in the instant before to this instant converting into consciousness moments. When a thought arises again at this instant the sound corporeal consciousness of that thought would arise in the arising of the concept of ear, in this instant. It seems the constant existence of an ear as the concept of ear too would arise relevant to the thought that arises at an uncountable speed. That too is only an illusion similar to the above mentioned fire round. In the arising of the thought of mango. in this instant the consciousness arose feeling the smell of mango in the mind as the smell of mango had been felt before. This incident in the convention is a truth. But when it is considered in reality the thought of mango which had arisen early, and the nose which had received the smell had ended on the spot. Since the functioning of that destruction up to now what has been existing is only the concept of nose made in ignorance. That concept too ended in the instant before. When the smell corporeal consciousness arises again relevant to the thought arises at this instant, the concept of nose too arises. As the thoughts arise in over speed and the smell corporeal consciousness too arises at each thought, the concept of nose too arises relevant to it. Therefore a constantly existing nose is visible. But it is only the ignorance as seen in the fire circle. In the arising of the thought of mango the taste of mango comes into mind as they were tasted early. This is true in the convention. Nothing is there to argue about it. But when it is taken in realty the
102 | P a g e
thought of mango which arose on that day had been dispersed on that spot. Since that destruction functioned up to now what has existed is only the concept of tongue built in the ignorance. That concept too was dispersed at the instant before, through breaking and crumbling off. In the arising of the taste corporeal consciousness corresponding to the thought arisen in this instant the concept of tongue too arises relevant to it. As the thoughts arise in over speed and the taste corporeal consciousness arises at each thought so arisen, the concept of the sphere of tongue too arises corresponding to it. That is why a non-tongue is seen as a real one. But it is only an illusion. The contact corporeal consciousness arose, calling to mind the contacts in the arising of the thought of mango, as those contacts had been received early. It is true in the convention. There is no argument about it. But when taken in reality the thought of mango which arose on that day had been dispersed on the spot, converting into consciousness moments. The concept of the matter of 'I' that received the contacts was dispersed on the spot converting into consciousness moments. Since that destruction upto this moment what is in existence is the concept of body which is built in ignorance. That concept too was destructed in the instant before. As the contact corporeal consciousness arises corresponding to the thought that arises in the present instant, the concept of body would arise relevant to it. As the thought arises in over speed and the concept of thought too arises relevant to it. It is therefore seen that a body is continuously in existence in reality. But it is only an illusion. When arising thoughts make perceptions, the arguments and reflections are built in own self, such as when arising thoughts of wind, sky and heat that are without
103 | P a g e
colour, taste or smell, and thoughts of only with the colour as' "rainbow" and thoughts with doubts in recognition as whether a colour is there or not a sound is there or not, a smell is there or not, a taste is there or not or a contact is there or not. When those reflections or arguments are built the hindrance or delay (papanca) would function. In that hindrance (to spiritual progress) the concept of six spheres arise. Therefore, we arrive at the conclusion of the existence of a being. (further details are given in a chapter ahead) In this manner a visible matter is created at each thought, functioning the perception (sanjānana) argument (vitakka) and hindrance (papanca) intervening into the time-triple building the ignorance. But it should be known that it is ignorance. What is introduced in the Conditioned Genesis (paticca samuppada) that birth is conditioned through the process of Becoming (bhava paccayā jāti) is of this birth that occurs in making the concept of the six spheres. Now we shall review how the Conditioned Genesis which is built in this instant along with the arising of the thought of mango, functions in the way mentioned above, get to its cessation with the ending of that thought. What has happened to the thought of mango which arose in this instant. In the word 'mango', the first syllable of 'man' came first. When it ended the next syllable 'go' came. In the pronunciation the sound of the first syllable did not exist till the second syllable sounds. It vanished in the arising itself. The second syllable too vanished in the arising itself. Both the syllables neither came together nor were linked together. Thus the thought of mango was not made at all joining the two syllables together . The only thing
104 | P a g e
that occured there was the vanishing of the thought in it's arising itself, or the cessation in the origination. When the cessation functions in the origination itself, as clarified here before, the five aggregates of matter, sensation, perception, formation and consciousness which arose relevant to that thought of mango, ceased in the arising itself. The five aggregates of attachment (panca upādānakkhanda) which were the base of the arising of the five aggregates too ceased within the arising. The concept of six spheres of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and the mind, which are homomorphous with the nature of five aggregates, ceased within the arising itself. The concept of being arose homogeneously with the concept of six spheres too ceased within the arising. The concept of 'I' arose homogeneously with the concept of the being too ceased within the arising. The Becoming (bhavaya) which was built homogeneously with ignorance which had arisen in the same instant. as the creation of everything too ceased within the arising itself. Along with the cessation of Becoming, that instant too ended. No being, a person, a doer, a causer , a body or a mind is further left remaining there. It is an end of one Becoming. This is the doctrine of Cause and Effect of the Conditioned Genesis which is built being arisen all the causal origins (hetu pacca) together caused by ignorance in the creation of the effect of thought, and it is the cessation of Cause and Effect or the Conditioned Genesis. The Buddha shows with an example of two bundles of reeds to make it easy to understand the Conditioned Genesis which is made with the simultaneous creation of the Cause and Effect. Two bundles of reeds are kept on the ground with a little space between them leaning against each other with their top ends,
105 | P a g e
that both the bundles are kept standing with the support of each other . One of the bundles is the cause of ignorance and the other is the effect of the thought based by the cause of ignorance. When the bundle of reeds taken as the effect of thought falls down, the other bundle taken as the cause of ignorance too falls down simultaneously. Thus, the origination and cessation of cause and Effect function simultaneously at each instant. This circumstance is stated thus in Dhamma Imasmin sati Imassa uppādā Imasmin asati lmassa nirōdhā When this is This arising When this is not This ceasing idan hōti idan uppajjati idan na hōti Idan nirujjati
That is that arises that is not
This can be further simplified thus When thought is When thought arising When thought is not When thought ceasing ignorance is ignorance arises ignorance is not ignorance ceases
The cessation of conditioned Genesis is given in the text thus. Avijjā nirōdhō sankāra nirōdhā
106 | P a g e
Sankāra nirōdhō vinnāna nirōdhā Nāma rūpa nirōdhō Salāyatana nirōdhō Phassa nirōdhō Vēdanā nirōdhō Tanhā nirōdō Upādana nirōdhō Bhava nirōdhō
vinnāna nirōdhā nāma rūpa nirōdhā salāyatana nirōdha phassa nirōdhā vedanā nirōdhā tanhā nirōdhā upādāna nirodha bhava nirōdhā jāti nirōdha
jāti nirōdhō, jars marana nirōdhā The cessation of ignorance leads to - the cessation of formation The cessation of formation leads to - the cessation of consciousness. The cessation of consciousness leads to - the cessation of corporeal organism. The cessation of corporeal organism (the concept of mind and matter) leads to the cessation of six spheres of sense. The cessation of six spheres of sense leads to - the cessation of contact. The cessation of contact leads to -the cessation of sensation.
The cessation of sensation leads to - the cessation of desire. The cessation of desire leads to - the cessation of grasping. The cessation of grasping leads to - the cessation of process of becoming. The cessation of process of becoming leads to - the cessation of birth. The cessation of birth leads to - the cessation of decay, death, lamentation, pain, grief and
107 | P a g e
despair. In the definition of the cessation of the conditioned Genesis given as "Eva metassa kēvalassa dukkhandhassa nirōdhō hoti". What is very clearly unconcealed is that in the cessation of ignorance (in the cessation of perception occured within an instant) all those twelve sorts of cessations occur in an instant. But many of the people are unaware of this instant destruction called "Khana bhanga" (moment dissolution). The cause is nothing else but waiting on to see it through the coarse eye. It will never happen. It can be seen only with the wisdom eye. The cessation of aggregates is seen as the comfort by the nobles. The whole world is opposed to that vision. Because the five aggregates which is seen as impermanent, suffering and no soul by the nobles, is seen as permanent comfort and soul by the people. It is given in the pali text thus"sukhanti ditthamariyēhi - sakkāyassa nirōdhā nan paccanika midan hoti - sabbā lokena passatan" If there is an unbreakable and uncrackable matter here, there should be a permanent mind too existing in that manner. If there is a permanent matter and a mind, then a permanent becoming (an existence) too should exist. There If such a permanent Becoming existed there. Then any being would never be able to realize Nibbāna through a cessation of perception during his lifetime, from his conventional birth up to death, having ceased from that permanent Becoming, Thus, if anybody decides that the Ultimate Truth the Nibbāna can be realized after his death, it would be definitely an ignorance of ignorance. There would never be a Nibbāna after the conventional death. The Becoming is the only
108 | P a g e
instant or moment in which a thought arises. The cessation of that thought is the cessation of the Becoming. What is said as the realization of Nibbāna after seeing the Buddha, is the ending of the Becoming, is the cessation of this instant. The Nibbāna is as clear as the light, for the worthy people who see through wise vision. The brutish people are incapable of seeing Nibbāna which is within their reach due to ignorance. It is given in the Pali Text thus " satanca vivatan hōti - ālōkō passa tā miva santikē na vijānanti - magā dammassa akō vidhā" It should be known that what is meant clearly by the cessation of Conditioned Genesis is this Nibbana which arises from within own self when ceasing from the mind for an instant.
109 | P a g e
7 SEEING THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS The realization of Nibbāna is seeing the Four Noble Truths This is linked with the Conditioned Genesis taken as the doctrine of Cause and Effect which is built in own self. The Four Noble Truths are the Noble Truth of Suffering (dukkha) the Noble Truth of arising of suffering (samudaya). the Noble Truth of cessation of suffering (nirodha) and the Noble Truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering (magga) the Buddha says that the four facts of the Four Noble Truths, the reality of the nature of being and person, the reincarnation of the being and the Conditioned Genesis are profound, difficult to be comprehended and also difficult for a person who had understood it to make others understand it clearly as states, " saccan sattō, patisandhi paccayākāra mēvaca duddasā caturō dhamma desētunca sudukkhara" What is defined here is that the Four Noble Truths are difficult and deep. The purpose of this definition is to clarify it as simply as possible. All the details of the Four Noble Truths should be known in understanding the first of them the Noble Truth of suffering (dukka). That knowledge is called 'parinnēyya' (perfectly comprehended) in the Metaphysics or higher doctrine. The pali text which says the appropriate function that should occur is to know the truth of the arising of suffering (samudaya the cause of the arising of suffering and suppressing it and is called "pahātabban"(to be suppressed) It further clarifies that the realization of Nibbāna can be achieved through the comprehension of the Noble Truth of cessation
110 | P a g e
and is called, saccika tabban' (to be realized) It is further stated that the Noble Truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering as the path which is to be developed within own self, and that cessation is called 'bhavetabban' (to be developed or self composed) In the definition of the Four Noble Truths the noble truth of suffering is defined as three aspects of suffering; 'dukkha dukkhatā' (the ordinary suffering 'viparināma dukkhatā. (the suffering caused by change) and "sankhāra dukkhatā (unsatisfactoriness of conditioned states) Such forms of physical and mental nuisances hindrances and miserable distresses faced in the daily life are meant by the 'dukkha dukkhatā The birth, aging, diseases, death, association with the unloved, dissociation from the loved, not getting what one desires, grief, lamentation and distress that exist in the convention are included in this category. A small child has necessities relevant to his childhood. After having attained the young age his early necessities change. He begins to search for comforts requisite for youth. When the old age is drawn in, moreover is inclined to a religious life, youth requirements been ousted. When conflicts spring up with the inability to remain existed in such an environment, one falls into sorrow. The comforts of the childhood disappear in the youth. The comforts of youth disappear in the old age. The comforts of the day before disappear today the comforts of the moment before perish this moment. This unavoidable variation functioning with nothing existing permanent is called the' viparināma dukkha' (suffering caused by change) .These two aspects of 'dukkha dukkhatā and viparināma dukkhatā" ordinary suffering and suffering produced by change are the conventional states functioning in the nature of being and person.
111 | P a g e
But what is taught as "sankhāra dukkhatā (unsatisfactoriness of conditioned states) is the way of the principles of suffering are built in the arising of thoughts or formations (sankhāra) as Sukha dukkha and adukkhama sukha' (joy sorrow and nonjoy non sorrow) It is the first aspect of the Four Noble Truths the Noble Truth, of suffering (dukkha ariya sacca) which is unconcealed deeply through the vision of the Perfect One the Tathagata, the way how the suffering is arisen truly. This is to be comprehended through wise explanation of the concepts of the matter and the mind. Unconcealing the facts of suffering of conditioned states is the understanding deeply through the analysis of the concepts of being, person and 'I' in order to conquer the birth and death. The Buddha explains the Noble Truth of suffering thusidhan khō pana bhikkhavē dukkhan ariya saccan jātipi dukkhā- jarāpi dukkhā vyādhipi dukkhā - marananpi dukkhan - appiyēhi sampayōgō dukkhō- piyēhi vippayōgō dukkhō van piccan nalabati thampi dukkhansankhittēna
pancūpādanakkhandā dukkhā" O' monks, what is called the Noble Truth of suffering? The birth is suffering. The ageing is suffering. Disease is suffering. Death is suffering. Association with the unloved in suffering. Dissociation from the loved is suffering. Not getting what one wants is suffering. In brief the five aggregates of attachment are suffering. This is the simple sense of it.The five aggregates of clinging mentioned here is the attachment that occurs in the arising of sense objects of matter of colour, sound, smell, taste and contact in using the sense organs of eye, ear , nose ,tongue and body. The cause of this attachment is the arising
112 | P a g e
of aggregates as matter. Sensation, perception, mental formation and consciousness that occur in the arising of thoughts within own self relevant to each matter. The arising of aggregates is described here in the definition of the Conditioned Genesis. As the five aggregates are built at each thought the attachment of matter, sensation, perception, mental formation and consciousness too occur. These attachments and the arising of the thought functions conditioning to each other Thoughts arise one by one. Two thoughts do not arise together at the same time. Thoughts do not arise at the past during the time passed up to the instant before. And also thoughts do not arise in the future from the next instant onwards as the being is not yet born there. Thus no being and no mind is created at those two occasions. So the suffering doesn't exist in the past and in the future. If so when and where does the suffering arise? It is only at this present instant where the concept of body and mind is created with the arising of the thought. Even there what originates is the concepts of Five Aggregates, Five Aggregates of attachment and the six spheres. But the ordinary being conies to an illusory conclusion, that what exists there is a being or an 'I' .So there arises the suffering, of birth ageing, disease and death, what is the primary cause for all of them? Nothing but only the thought arising at this present instant The arising of the five aggregates, the arising of the five aggregates of a attachment, the arising of the concept of the six spheres, the arising of the concepts of matter and mind including the body.
113 | P a g e
All occur based by the thought that arose at this present instant. The thought that leads to the building of all sorts of suffering is the Noble Truth of suffering, the first truth of the four noble truths. When clarifying the cause for the suffering that arises with the arising of the thought the Buddha expressed thus. "Idhan khō pana bhikkhavē dukkha samudayan ariya saccanyāyan tanhā - pōno bhavikā- nandirāga sahagatā - tatra tatrābhi nandini- seyyatidan kāma tanha bhavā tanha vibbava tanha" 'O' Monks. What is the arising of the Noble Truth of suffering? It is the craving (tanhā) which causes re- existence and re-becoming ( ponōbhavikā) bounding up with passionate greed (nandirāga sahagatā) finding out fresh delight now here and now there (tatra tatrābi nandani) as follows, craving for sense pleasures (kāma tanhā) craving for continued existence or Becoming (bhava tanha) and craving for self annihilation (vibhava tanha) This is the simple sense of it. Would there exist the craving (tanha) which is shown as the cause of arising of suffering, at a place where a being is absent? That wouldn't be. If so craving exists there, where a being is. A being is not there further any where in the past which has ended. The past up to the instant before is fully empty. A being an individual, a matter, a mind, a craving for sense pleasure (kāma tanhā) a craving for re- existence (bhava tanha) a craving for nonexistence(vibhava tanhā) does not further exist in the past. Would there be any thing of them at the next instant? As the being is not yet born there, a matter, a mind, a consciousness, a craving for sense pleasure. A craving for re-existence, or a craving for nonexistence wouldn't exist in the future
114 | P a g e
that commences from the next instant. If so the being including body and mind and the triple craving too arises caused by the thought originated within the present instant. Why does a thought arise in the present instant? Because of the ignorance. Ignorance of what? The ignorance of the destruction occurring then and there breaking up and crumbling off in great speed. The being called 'I' and the mind connected with and the thoughts built there, in this tour of continuity of existence, caught in the time. The ordinary beings who are unaware of this instant destruction occurring in reality within the state taken as the being or 'I' have come to a conclusion that there is 'I' permanently existing with a mind and the five sense organs are constantly existing. It is true that these states are constantly existing in the convention. But it shouldn't be forgotten that they all are only a mirage when taken with reality. The ordinary people are in the attempt of enrapturing the eye. ear, nose, tongue and body in the conclusion that they are the five sense organs and the 'I'. In this process of cause and effect that occurs free from a doer, causer or a state of being and individual, there arises the concept of corporeality of colour, sound, smell, taste and contact with the effect of ignorance. In this incident the five aggregates, the five aggregates of attachment and the concept of six spheres arise. This whole process is not an action done by a being called the "I". It is only a spontaneous nature of cause and effect, so the world is interpreted thus. ' kammanā vattati lōkō kammanā cattail pajā kamma nibandhanā satthā rathāssanicā yāyatē"
115 | P a g e
The Buddha had cleared that the connection between the cause and effect does not occur by a direction of anybody but a self-performance as the yield is received from what was sown. The craving would not arise in the free functioning of the theory of cause and effect. But what does the ordinary person who is unaware of the reality do? Concluding that when he sees an object with the eye, feels it as beautiful or ugly. Concluding a hearing of a sound feels it as pleasant or unpleasant. Concluding a smell feels as good or bad, concluding a taste feels it sweet or bitter, concluding on a contact feels it tender or coarse. All these sensations are not wrong in the convention. There is no argument on it. But when it is taken in reality this body on one side is a thing destructed without anything remaining caught in the time. On the other side it is formed with corporeal groups constantly dispersing through breaking up and crumbling off. Not only that the body is a mental concept. That too is in the nature of constantly breaking up and crumbling off. The body is breaking and crumbling off in these three sorts. Relevant to this over speed constant destruction of the body, the nature taken as the mind too is breaking up and crumbling off constantly. The ordinary being, unaware of anything, assuming that there is an eye, pleases the eye; assuming that there is an ear, pleases the ear: assuming that there is a nose, pleases the nose; assuming that there is a tongue, pleases the tongue; and assuming that there is a body, pleases the body. Although these organs exist in the convention, none of them exist in reality. The world being who is ignorant of the reality, cultivates sensation using non- sense organs through liking and craving. In the discourses taught for the benefit of this world and the world next (dittadhammika
116 | P a g e
and samparāika) ,what is introduced of sensual pleasure is the engaging in unauthorized sexual relations. These discourses teach how to lead a disciplined life. But what is clarified profoundly in the discourses on mind and of ultimate reality (paramatta dēsana) in the metaphysics (abhidhamma) is to refrain from the craving for sense pleasure (kāma tanhā) having ceased from the whole concept arising within own self. The highest doctrine introduces that the attachment of the thoughts of matter, sound, smell, taste and contact arise within own self, too is the craving for sense pleasure (kāma tanhā) arising within own self. The cause for the suffering of Becoming clarifies in the term beginning with "seyyathidan kama tanhā, bhava tanhā, vibhava tanhā" The Buddha taught that both thoughts of merits and demerits originate desire or lust, and the cessation of all thoughts is the cessation of desire. Thus says the Buddha," "Punna pāpa pahinassa natthi jāga ratō bhayan" It should be known that arising of any sort of thoughts is nothing but the craving for sense pleasure kāma tanhā) In order to enjoy the five sense pleasures through feed-pleasing the five sense faculties (panca indriya), the thought is to be arisen. What is functioned in the arising of any sort of thought such as of comforts (sukha), sorrow (dukkha) or non- comfort and non-sorrow (adukkhama sukha) is the origination of the re-existence or Becoming. This so called Becoming which would he built at the arising of a thought would be broken off with the ending of that thought. The re building of the re-existence would occur at the arising of the next thought. In this way in the procedure of breaking up and crumbling off of the
117 | P a g e
becoming, the eye and the colour corporeality that arise there would also be destructed simultaneously. The ordinary being does not even see this instant destruction. through wisdom and watchfulness, but also does not even think of the destruction (of the body) through the skeleton stage after ageing decaying and death" which (body) once had been welcomed as pretty and delicate under the direction of the sight of the coarse eye. The reason why it couldn't be given up, seeing through wisdom the thought of the impermanent body or the thought created with the amalgamation of eye and colour corporeality, is nothing but the thirst or craving for the re-existence (bhava tanha). An ordinary person doesn't see through wisdom in reality, the state of instant breaking up and crumbling off of the ear that hears the sound, and with the sound itself at the same place, but also doesn't recall to mind the pleasant and unpleasant sounds heard yesterday do not exist today in the manner of sensibility and visibility to the coarse organs, and that the ear with which the sounds are heard, is in the nature of wearing out in the passing off of the time; and that the outer beings who produced sounds and the 'I' who heard the sounds also would die. The reason that why it doesn't release the thoughts of the impermanent sounds, is the craving for becoming (bhava tanha) to proceed in the continuity of existence. He doesn't see through wisdom, in reality the state of being constantly breaking up and crumbling off on the same spot, of the nose by which the smells are felt, and of the same smell itself, but also doesn't think that the perceptible pleasant food that was consumed would be converted into wastes after a few hours; and the incense flower will be withered in a few hours; and that all sorts of matter including the dear children who are lovingly
118 | P a g e
embraced with, would be subjected to decay and illness and death at the end. The cause of the unrelinquishment of these impermanent smells is the craving for perambulating in the Becoming. Not even does he see through wisdom, that in reality the state of being breaking and crumbling off at the very spot, of the tongue with which the taste is received and at that very taste itself; but also doesn't think for a moment, of what is taken as the taste which is bounded up only to the tongue, and that when it (tasty food) was passed off the throat; the so-called taste too does not exist there further, and if the food which has been chewed with relishing was taken back away from the mouth, it would be seen, as an unpleasant heap of vomit mixed with saliva and phlegm; when it is ousted off from the body, which had been taken in early as of tasty food, is a heap of malodorous faeces. Thus the cause of this unrelinquishment of these impermanent tastes, is the craving for chasing after thought of taste, and so it is the craving for becoming. Not even does he see through wisdom, that in reality the state of being breaking and crumbling off on the same spot, of the body which gets a contact and the body which is outwardly connected for getting the contact, but also doesn't even think for a moment that in the manner of sensibility and visibility to the coarse organs that the body is a formation of nine outlets for flowing impurities, and saliva phlegm, mucus, sweat, blood and pus and of unpleasant nature with constant trickling of urine and impurities and of limitless malodor or stink that had not be cleaned constantly; and that body which would be old wrinkled and deformed. is only a skeleton covered with a skin; and that too converted into soil of the earth when dead and gets decayed. And all sorts of such matters are of state of impermanence. Thus the cause of the
119 | P a g e
unrelinquishment and the desire for this body which is impermanent and a heap of impurity, is the desire for perambulating in the continuity of existence, which is the craving for becoming. The ordinary being senses constantly the pleasant and unpleasant objects seen with the eye. That is why a person desires to see even a putrefied and stinking carcass unpleasant to look at, even with the nose being closed or knobbed. Senses the pleasant or unpleasant, sounds that are heard with the ear. That is why he likes to hear even in hiding, a quarrel with obscene challenges. Senses the smells pleasant or unpleasant that come to the nose. Senses the tastes that are felt with the tongue; and the contact, that are felt with the skin, in the same way as pleasant or unpleasant. Thus had not gone chasing after the sensation, the craving of each and every object couldn't be arisen. Going in sensing is to be remaining purposely with the thought that arises due to the theory of cause and effect, and been neglected caught in the time and being into Becoming. Thus in this way being in clinging with the five sense organs without giving up the thought that arises at this moment and been neglected, is the craving for Becoming (bhava tanha) which is the cause of arising of suffering. Assume that the thought of 'beautiful' arises when something is in contact with the eye. In the arising of that thought all the three syllables of the word 'beautiful' did not arise at the same time. As clarified here early, the second syllable 'ti' came after ending the first syllable ' beau' and the third syllable "ful" came last after ending the second syllable 'ti' In this way, that thought ended within the arising itself, converting into consciousness moments (cittakkhana) breaking off separately syllable by syllable. The thought of 'beautiful' was not made or existed even for an instant. If one waited for a
120 | P a g e
moment, looking at something based on the object of ' beautiful' one sees that the object arises and vanishes for countless times within that same moment. The nature of a thought is the existence for no-time. Hanging on or clinging to an object is the negligence that functioned caught in the time. Even the matter, the mind or the thought would never exist even for an instant, till the sensation is received in that negligence. They all would vanish instantly breaking and crumbling off. But one would be re-reborn (vibhava) repeatedly within the vanishing thought, because of the sensuous craving (kāmātanha) the thirst for pleasing the five sense organs and the existential craving (bhava tanhā) the thirst for existence and Becoming, having clinged with the thought for the same pleasure. In this way, as well as the thoughts in the object seen with the eye, all thoughts arise at the contacts with the other organs the ear, nose, tongue and the body are vanished in breaking and crumbling off as in the manner mentioned early. But the attachment is functioned being re-born repeatedly within those same thoughts too. Thus the receival of sensation born again and again within the thought that would vanish converting into consciousness moments is the craving for re birth in the thought (vibhava tanha) which causes suffering. Though the Becoming which is created by the triple craving is taken by the ordinary people as a comfort, the learned people emphasize it as a suffering. The reality which is seen by the learned as a comfort is seen by the ordinary people as a suffering. The Buddha taught thus "Yan parē sukha tō āhū - kadariyā āhū dukkhatō Yan parē dukkhētō āhū - kadariyā sukhatō vidū"
121 | P a g e
It means that they who would be freed from suffering of Becoming having ceased from the triple craving are the intellectuals. Somebody can argue that this triple craving doesn't exist in every thought that arises. Such expressions can be resulted due to lack of keen study of matter and mind. The basic principle required for seeing the Four Noble Truths is the sight of instant cessation gained from within own self. What is known by the intellectuals who are engaged in the Noble Research is not of the convention but the nonconvention or reality. The cause for the prolonging of the tour of continuity of existence is the arising of the sensual craving, craving for existence and Becoming and the craving for nonexistence. This craving does not arise at any place where the being is absent. If so the being is born only in this instant, taken as the present, as clarified here early. What is functioned there is only the arising of a thought. The being and the mind were originated caused by the craving for sense pleasure, the craving for existence and Becoming and the craving for nonexistence created in the arising of that thought. Thus it is clear that the whole of the triple craving which is the cause for the suffering is created at each thought, and the cause for the arising of suffering is the arising of the same thought. The triple craving is built due to the arising of the thought, while that thought is created due to the arising of the triple craving. Both these forms do not arise separately at two places but do arise causal to each other simultaneously together at the same spot. That is the reason why the Buddha clarified that the cause for the suffering that was created in the arising of the thought is this triple craving. The Buddha called it 'samudaya' (arising) the creation of the concept of being due to
122 | P a g e
the cause of the craving the craving for sense pleasure, the craving for existence and becoming and the craving for nonexistence, arise at each thought, creating the mind, forming the becoming and confirming the birth and death. This 'samudaya' which occurs in an instant, ends, in the same instant in breaking and bursting off. This ending of 'samudaya' is named as 'nirōdhaya' (cessation) by the Buddha. These two forms were named as 'samudaya' and 'nirodhaya' as it is a spontaneous process functioning free of relations with a doer a causer or a being or an individual. The Buddha clarifies thus how this ‘samudaya’ (arising) ceases at the same place. "O" Monk, what is called the cessation of suffering? The state of non-greediness which is arisen at the cessation of the triple craving, the craving for sense pleasure, the craving for existence and becoming and the craving for non existence is the evasion from attachment with Becoming. It is called "nirodha" (cessation). It is stated thus,"Idhan khōpana bhikkhavē dukkha nirōdhan ariya saccan -yō tassā yēva tanhā asēsa viraga nirōdhōcāgō patinissaggō- mukti atuilayō" It is given in the Pali text, that the termination of the greed (rāga) having declined the craving, is the Nibbāna (the Buddhist summon bonum the supreme prosperity). Seeing the Four Noble Truth is this same 'nirodha' (cessation) which is to be seen within own self. In order to function a 'nirodha' there should be a 'samudaya' (arising too). Where there is no 'samudaya' there would be nothing to to be :nirodha' (ceased). If so where a 'nirodha' is functioned a 'samudaya' too is there and where a"samūdaya" is functioned a "nirodha" too is there. This is not a function occurring at two
123 | P a g e
occasions in two forms at all. It is only a simultaneous function occurring together at the same place. This is one which is known as the cessation of cause and effect is functioned at the same place. Where the nature of cause and effect is created. The functioning of the nirodha (cessation) is the vanishing at the same place of the thought which is the effect built caused by the craving. Therefore it should be known that the 'samudaya' and 'nirodha' exist in each and every thought.
The majority had not known so far how, where, and in what manner, this samudaya and nirodhaya functioned. The only necessity that should be known and functioned for the realization of nibbana is to see it from within own self. This postulation of the cessation of Cause and Effect is the Buddha Vision. It is not difficult to read the Four Noble Truths in books. Hearing too is not difficult. What many of us had done so far is only the hearing and reading of them. Also many of us have misunderstood that the 'knowing accordingly' (anubōdha) through reading and hearing is seeing the truth There would never occur the 'penetration (maha pound) the evident comprehension of the Supreme Wisdom or seeing the truth within a mind. It could be declared with confirmation and also with responsibility that seeing the Four Noble Truths would occur in an instant when the mind is freed, (had used the word 'seeing' here no one would be there to see when the cessation occurs, words are used only to introduce through writing) Buddha has instructed to see the Four Noble Truths from within the cessation of perception. In this definition it has been cleared how the suffering would occur caused by the
124 | P a g e
thought, at this instant, and the craving for sense pleasure, the craving for Existence and Becoming and the craving for Nonexistence, which cause to arise dukkha the suffering. The cessation in the origination of the thought which is the cause of suffering, and that suffering too are clearly shown here. What is to be done by the intelligent devotees who are in search of ways for the realization of Nibbana, is seeing with systematic (wise) attention striving on heedfully the functioning of the cessation of the thought within the arising itself simultaneously at the same instant. It is clear in the definition, the first three facts of the Four Noble Truths are built within the same thought. In clarifying the path for the cessation Buddha has advised to follow the Noble eightfold path for the purpose. Thus said, Idhan kho pana bhikkhave dukkha nirodha gāmini patipadā ariya saccan- ayamēva ariya atihangikō maggō seyyathidan - sammā ditthi, sammā sankapppa sammā vacāsammā kammantō - sammā ājivā sammā vāyamō- sammā sati - sammā samādhi"What is mentioned here as' sammā ditthi' is the right understanding. It is of two kinds. One is the right understanding that should be maintained in the conventional life . The other is the right understanding, which should be followed, ceased from the convention and for the purpose of realization of Nibbana. These two forms are called the mundane (worldly) right understanding and the supermundane right understanding. The right understanding of mundanity consist of ten stages. Generosity is virtuous and with good effects: offering and worshipping are with good effects: offering gifts to guests is with good effect. Good and bad deeds are with effects; This world exists with effects. There is a belief of world before and a world after. There are beings born
125 | P a g e
spontaneously. Looking after parents is of good effects. There are righteous and well disciplined recluses and Brahmins who have realized this world and the world beyond and make known the same. Leading one's life with those beliefs is the right understanding that is to be maintained in the convention. Thinking, speaking, behaving, leading a life engaged in activities, striving in constantly, being in attentiveness and keeping the mind within their bounds, in accordance with those facts are the eight limbs of this right understanding of mundanity(Eightfold path). Those are eightfolds maintained in the concept of ego, with the belief that every thing linked with the theory of deed and effect (kamma phala vādā). Such beliefs of soul concepts were found since the pre-Buddha period. These so- called visions based on soul-concept were introduced by different teachers. It is true this eight fold path was followed in Bharata at that period. But the Buddha had never advised to reject it. But Buddha has declared that where there is action and effect functioning the consciousness full of thinking prevails, and that consciousness is an illusory mirage, quoted as 'mayūpamā vinnānan' (comparing the consciousness to an illusion) This Right View of the constituents of the path, of nobleness, passionlessness and super-mundanity' (ariya anasava lokuttara magganga samma ditthi) which is relevent to the non-soul noble vision introduced by the Buddha, is a doctrine subjective only to the Buddhist dispensation. The Buddha further clarifying said, that the right view is the wisdom of suffering, the wisdom of the arising of suffering, the wisdom of the cessation of suffering and the wisdom of the path leading to the cessation of suffering. Said thus-
126 | P a g e
"Tattha kathamā sammā ditthi - dukkhē nānan, dukkha samudayē nānan- dukkha nirōdhayē nānan- dukkha nirōdha gāmini patipadāya nānan ayan vuccati samma ditthii" This clarification is not revealed in any other Philosophy. The facts of the right view due to the Pali texts, can be made known only by the Path- fruitioned (magga phala lābhi) and Stream entered (sotāpanna) noble persons who have been realized from within own self. What is revealed from this super mundane Noble Eightfold Path is a way leading to Nibbana to go on having seen through wisdom the emptiness of all. Seeing the emptiness of the world is going seeing through wisdom from within own self the over speed destruction through breaking and crumbling off at each instant of the world called 'the mind' attached to the body of about the size of a fathom. Buddha advised the youth Mogaraja (barren king) once to see the world within ownself as that it is empty. He advised Rupananda too, to see the body as of empty. Here the emptiness is the void or the vacuum or the barrenness. What is apparent of these facts is that the Buddha has directed to see the world which is taken in the sense of self or ego as of a place of vacuum with nothing existing. The Buddha clarifies it further thus- If one would understand correctly the reality of the object which is built with contact of the three stages of the eye, the outward matters and the consciousness which had been the base to see these matters and that situation would not be taken as comfort or suffering and also not as non-comfort or non-suffering, (adukkhama sukha) not be sensed as comfort or suffering, So when seeing the reality, the five aggregates of attachment would not exist there again. The craving which makes rebirth would be ousted. In this right view all the eight limbs of
127 | P a g e
the noble eightfold path would he fulfilled simultaneously. And also the thirty seven Requisites of Enlightenment or things pertaining to enlightenment (bōdhi pākkhiya dhamma) too would be fulfilled This profound doctrine cleared by him is crystal clear and is the basic foundation for the realization of Nibbāna. Many haven't been able to understand this depth so far. This process clarified by the Buddha is the establishment in the right view of the Constituents of the path of Nobleness, Passionlessness and Super- mundanity (ariya anāsava lōkuttara magganga sammā ditthi Buddha taught to see through wisdom the triple characteristies (tilakkhana) that all formations are impermanent, all formations are subjected to suffering and every thing (sabbē dhammā) without self, in order to see thorough wisdom being waken up, and with thorough attention or enlightened thinking he revealed how the thought that arises in this instant, disperses through breaking out and crumbling off at the very same place. So said thus; 'Sabbē sankhārā aniccā - sabbē sankhāra dukkha sabbe dhamma anattā- yadā pannāya passati" It is the same as this 'moment dissolution (khana bhanga) or the instantaneous destruction the expression of Buddha at his last moment, that to see through wisdom how the cessation has occurred in the same origination itself or the ending of all formations or thoughts in the same arising as; "Khandadāni sampādētha" bhikkhavē āmantayāmi-vō vayadhamma sankharā appamādēna
128 | P a g e
Buddha advised the lay adherant ( upāsaka) Bhahiya to see at the same place, the origination and the cessation of the thought that arises in this instant as said"ditthē dittha mattan bhavissati- sutē suta mattan bhavissati- mutē muta mattan bhavissati- vinnāte vinnāta mattan bhavissati" "Let go there itself what is seen; Let go there itself what is heard: Let go there itself what is sensed through nose tongue or contact: Let go there itself what is perceived or thought that arises in the consciousness" Thus disposing the right view called"samma ditthi"within ownself, is the "sammā sankappa" or being attentive to see through wisdom, what is happening to the thought. The intellectuals would comprehend that no thoughts are to be left remaining there, when the 'bhava' the becoming which is built caused by the thought is omitted at the same place and therefore not a single exists there. The Buddha the Arahants and the obtainers of higher knowledge (adhigama Iābhi) sermonize dhamma using words with the assurance of nonwords of at least a bit of particles. What is meant by 'samma vāca' the right speech (words) is the words used with the knowledge that no words exist. Thus the limbs or qualities of the right thoughts and right speech would develop in the right view (understanding) of seeing through wisdom of the cessation in the origination of instantly arising thought and the six spheres which arise simultaneously. The wisdom the most essential quality for the realization of Nibbāna would be to develop with the cause of cultivating the three qualities of right view, right thought and right speech. As so, when going on seeing through wisdom the impermanency of the thought, the way of dispersion of the actions function within ownself or formations at the same place, would
129 | P a g e
also be seen through wisdom. This is the right action called, 'sammā kammanta' functions within ownself. What is called 'samma ajiva' is leading life seeing the arising and vanishing of the concepts of matter and mind as where T is up. The attempt to see how every thing is dispersing at the same place and how the Becoming is bursting off, without getting caught into it, is called 'sammā vāyāma." For Nibbana, along with the wisdom, the moral conduct or the restraint too are tō be cultivated. What is functioned in cultivating the right action, the right livelihood and right effort is the improvement of that restraint and moral conduct. When striving on this moral conduct the cessation of ten million perceptions which are built with arising thoughts would occur. What functions there is a subsidence of perceptions of ten million morals. This is called ten million perceptions weaning moral. This moral is created in the blast of views arising within ownself. In that sense it is re-named as, 'dittinca anupagamma silavā' the moral of non-arrival at views. It is stated that where this moral is established, one would not be born again there in a womb (spheres)being into Becoming. Thus said, "nahijātu gabba seyyan punarēti" The wisdom and the moral conduct which are the most essential parts needed for the deliverance of continuity of existence are cultivated within ownself, at the same place simultaneously, where there is wisdom, there is moral conduct and where there is moral conduct there is wisdom. Thus said; 'Yattha silan tattha pannā - yattha pound tattha silan" Both these natures arise simultaneously at the same place, where the thorough attention (yōniso manasikāra) or the mundane concentration exists. Thus the wisdom, moral conduct and concentration (samādhi) the fundamental qualities for Nibbana are
130 | P a g e
established having completed simultaneously the whole set of the Noble Eightfold Path. All the above eight limbs (parts) would be built within the same instant simultaneously only if thorough attention is established. The arrived attention or intellect or the right or perfect attention (samma sati) is that limb. Thus when thorough attention is established within ownself that individual would be with a mundane concentration or right concentration (sammā samādhi) When one is established in that right concentration in which the thirty seven Requisites of Enlightenment (bōdhi pākkhiya dhamma) arise would not join with the objects built by the eight limbs of two eyes. two, ears, nose, tongue, body and mind, because of that would not join in a tour of Becoming with that eight limbs. Seeing the emptiness of every thing through wisdom from within ownself would give up from within ownself at the same place. When these externally established eight limbs would be given up, eight limbs based by the emptiness would arise. If one handles these eight limbs, there it is called, that the Noble Eightfold Path is established in a noble minded person, These eight limbs are called the truth, of the path (magga sacra) which is considered as the fourth truth, of the Four Noble Truths. It is named as the truth of the path as it is the right and perfect way to go on for Nibbāna seeing the nonexistence of the sense organs. Thus all the three limbs of the Four Noble Truths, the Truth of suffering (dukkha) the Truth of arising (samudaya) which is the origination of suffering caused by the craving for sense pleasure (kāma tanhā) the craving for Existence and Becoming (bhava tanhā) and the craving for nonexistence (vibhava tanhā) and the truth cessation (nirōdha) which is considered as the end of suffering having got rid of that craving would be created at each
131 | P a g e
thought when that thought ceases after arising. In order to be endowed with the perfect view (sammā ditthi) which is the way of seeing the cessation; the nature of dispersion of the thought, through cracking and crumbling out on the spot, is to be seen. The truth of the path too would be completed there. Thus it should be known clearly that the vision of the Four Noble Truths is seeing the impermanency, misery (suffering) non- self, (soullessness) from within ownself.What is said by the Buddha as ;lujjati palujjati loko. (the world is breaking up and crumbling off) is when going on seeing from within ownself, the dispersion of the thought through cracking and crumbling off, the Nibbana would be realized in an instant unknown by one, having ceased completely the matter and mind. It should be known that seeing the Four Noble Truths is in this nature.
132 | P a g e
8 The Ten Fetters The barriors to Nibbana The conditioned Genesis is functioned caused by the arising of the Ten Fetters and with the simultaneous arising of the causal origins favourable for the continuity of existence. The Ten Fetters assist to build the concept of being along with building the concepts of matter and mind. The arising of the Ten Fetters which function within the Conditioned Genesis itself, cause to block up completely the way to Nibbana. The way to Nibbana would be opened had the correct form of a rising of the Fetters been known and act accordingly preventing their arising. The fundamental cause for the creation of Fetters is the sensation occurring at each thought. This sensation may be felt by a thought of comfort, suffering or neither comfort nor suffering. It might be a meritorious kamma-formation (punnābhi sankhāra) or a demeritiorious kamma Formation (apunnābhi sankhāra) or imperturbable kamma formation (anenjābhi sankhāra). What ever it is, it is a thought. At each instant when a thought arises a Becoming would be created. It happens so, as the thought that arises is subjected to be sensed. With this sensation the Personality Belief (sakkāya ditthi) the first fetter would be placed. The Buddha clarifies the concept of being, arises building simultaneously all the ten fetters commencing with the personality Belief as thus:
"Yan vedēti Van sanjānati Yan vitakkēti -
- tan sanjānāti tan vitakkēti tan papancēti
133 | P a g e
Yan papancēti -
tatō nidhānan purisan
Papanca sannā sanka samuda caranti atita anāgata paccuppannēsū cakkhu vinnēsu rūpēsu" What is felt that is known that is reflected that is delayed that comes into being
What is known What is reflected What is delayed -
Gathering of perceptions give way to transmigration which create a visible consciousness world. At the functioning of a sensation at each thought, there occurs an awareness. That awareness or thought is recognized at the functioning reflection. With that reflection, occurs the delay (papanca). The functioning of a delay is called the origin or treasure of the arising of the concept of Being. The gathering of perception made there makes way to roam about in the continuity of existence. Then it creates a world of consciousness visible to the coarse eye building the time triple of past present and future. This is the simple sense of the above stanza. When a sensation occurs in ownself a recognition is functioned to know what that sensation is. It is called the perception or recognition (sanjānana) That perception is occured through a formation of a reflection (vitakka) about special doubt (vicikicca) or an assurance expected through the reflection. In the assurance of the thought, which arose due to the Personality view (sakkāya ditthi) the second fetter called the sceptical doubt (vicikicca) arises.
134 | P a g e
What isthe reflection created on the thought when recognizing the sensation? Do colours exist there or not, related to that thought? If they do, what colours are they? Do sounds exist there or not? If they do what are they? Do smells exist or not? If they exist what smells are they? Do tastes exist or not? If they do what tastes are they? Do contacts exist or not?. If they do what are they? These are the reflections (vitakka) that arise there. On this occasion, if colours are found in that thought, the processes of consciousness (cittaviti) of them are known. If sounds are found the processes of consciousness of them are known. If smells, taste or contacts are found the processes of consciousness of them are known. If they do not exist, processes of nonentity are created. In this awareness (vijanana) the craving (tanha) views (ditthi) and criterion or measurement (mana) are arisen and the diffuseness or manifoldness (papanca) of matter, sensation, perception. formation and consciousness of recognition of corporealities of colour, sound, smell, taste and contact of the thought that is sensed arise. As the Buddha clarifies in "Yan vitākketi -tan papanceti" This is how the diffuseness or manifoldness (papanca) occurs in the functioning of reflection (vitakkka) In this diffuseness if the colour corporealities of thought exist, they are to be recognized. If they do not exist that state too is to be recognized. The concept of the sphere of eye used before to recognize, colours too arises here. The concept of the sphere of ear used before to recognize sounds wises here too. The concept of the sphere of nose used before to recognize smells arises here too. It should be known that the concepts of the spheres of tongue and the body too arise. in the same procedure.
135 | P a g e
As the concept of being arises, the concept of spheres in the same procedure arises. The Buddha clarifies it in the statement "yan papancēti tatō) nidhānan purisan" that the function of the diffuseness is the treasure of arising of the Being. In the same way at each arising of a thought the colour corporeality is recognized through the concept of eye: the sound corporeality is recognized through the concept of ear: The smell corporeality is recognized through the concept of nose: The taste corporeality is recognized through the concept of tongue: The contact corporeality is recognized through the concept of body This process that occurs thus, originating a concept that a being exits and creating the consciousness in ownself is called the wrong ritual or wrong rite (miccā rata) At this wrong ritual one does approach to an opinion that those corporealities of colour, sound, smell, taste and contact related to that thought are in such and such forms. Although these forms exist in convention, they do not exist in reality. Therefore what is approached here, is a wrong opinion. The formation of this wrong ritual and wrong opinion within own self is the third fetter called clinging to mere rules and ritual (silabbata parāmāsa) The colour corporealities of the thought that arose are being reflected. Likewise all these corporealities of sound. smell, taste and contact too are being reflected. As colour corporealities are being sensed, all the other corporealities of sound, smell taste and contact too are being sensed. In this sensation, along with arising at the concepts of sense faculties five fold sense pleasures, the desire for the sense pleasure of seeing bodies hearing sounds. sensing smells, tastes and feeling contacts are arisen.
136 | P a g e
So the desire for clinging to that thought is called the Sensuous Lust (kāma raga) and it is the fourth Fetter. One would arrive to the conclusion that a 'non -I' is in existence, in this process that functions, forming the Personality-belief (sakkāya ditthi) originating Sceptical doubt (vicikiccā) clinging to mere Rules and Rituals (silabbata parāmāsa) which are considered as wrong views and rites, and creating Sensuous-Craving (kama rāga). So one should come to the conclusion that a non- existing outward world is in existence. These conclusions were being sprung due to the collision or the contact of objects sprang up due to the collision or the contact of objects piling up causal effects functioning within own self. This is called the Ill- will (vyāpāda)the fifth Fetter, which is made known in the Ultimate Language (paramatta dēsanā) as conflict against objects or the contact, but in the convention it is known as anger or wrath. These Fetters of the Personality belief (sakkāya ditthi) the Sceptical-doubt (vicikiccā) the Clinging to mere Rules and Rituals (silabbata parāmāsa) the Sensuous Craving (kama raga) and Ill- will (vyāpada) are originated caused by the conventional conclusions of the existence of a being called 'I'. The convention is caused by the diffuseness of manifoldness (papanca) created by craving (tanha) view (ditthi) and criterion (māna). At the arising of the Being concept, after the functioning of diffuseness (papanca) one comes to a conclusion that there is a convention really in existence. owing to that conclusion the Being is made upsidedown. So the Being is made to the mundane state of grasping the world. Because of that, these five Fetters are considered as the fetters belonging to the lower world (ōrambhagiya) which arise grasping the world (the earth)
137 | P a g e
In the arising of these Fetters one comes to the conclusion that an external world is existing, and joins with it because of ignorance. Assuming that the corporealities of colour, sound, smell, taste and contact are existing, at the thought that has arisen, and they are being attached. The feelings arising there at the objects are called the craving for tine -material existence (rūpa rāga) and it is the sixth Fetter. All these objects arise as craving for immaterial existence are only concepts or thinking. Had these concepts ended one day the world with 'I' too would end. It would happen so, as the world which is created by lust or greed (rāga) has existed in the incorporeal mind. The lusts existing in that formless mind (arūpa mana) are called craving for immaterial existence, (arūpa rāga) and it is the seventh Fetter. The criterion (māna) that occurs in the consciousness is the cause to the craving for immaterial existence (arūpa rāga) which is created with causal effects at the arising of the formless or immaterial mind. Though in convention the word 'mana' is interpreted as pride or arrogance, but in reality it is used for some sorts of measuring. Here 'māa' is meant to make out matters or corporealities arisen in the mind in different forms. Recognizing in different ways the corporealities such as colour sound etc. arising in the thought is called 'conceit' (māna) It is the eighth Fetter. In the arising of a thought and at the perceiving (vijānana) that occur in own self with causal effect to each other, the movement of the mind, dividing in different forms is called the Restlessness and worry or flurry and worry (uddhacca kukkucca) and that is the ninth Fetter. Sensing the thought that arose is a deception. That thought is one totally destroyed through breaking off. The five aggregates, the five aggregates of attachment and the
138 | P a g e
concept of six spheres too are deceptions. Coming to a conclusion that there exists a Being and it is "I" is also a deception. All sorts of deceptions occur due to the ignorance of the nonentity of the conventional world in reality. It is the tenth Fetter called ignorance (avijjā) The five Fetters of craving for fine- material existence (rūpa raga) craving for immaterial existence (arūpa raga) conceit (mana) Restlessness and worry or worry and flurry (uddhacca kukkucca) and ignorance (avijja) are built with the conclusion of the existence of a nonexisted mind. So they are called "higher Fetters" (uddhambhāgiya sanyōjana) comparing to an arising occurs embracing the empty space and as they are tied to the higher world, the fine material and immaterial world. The first five fetters are called- 'lower Fetters' (ōrambhāgiya sanyōjana) as thy are tied to the sense world. Where the Being is not existing, all these fetters too do not exist there. Therefore it shouldn't be forgotten that all the ten fetters arise within this instant in which the concept of Being is creating and all the other causal effects are originating.
139 | P a g e
9 THE STREAM ENTRANT (sotāpanna) The acquaintance of various fields obtained through comprehensive observation over different subjects in the world is known as knowledge. This knowledge would be further developed through reading, discussions, dialogues, exploration. tourism and the experience gained through day to day activities of imitative nature and of all sources of investigative comprehension. What is functioned through all these processes of assertions is gathering of knowledge from the outer world. This awareness obtained through imitative reconciliation is known as "knowing accordingly" (anubōdha) This knowledge obtained by ownself through imitation, joining with the external world which is enriched with others knowledge is classified into two groups namely the intelligent- knowledge (buddimaya) and abstract knowledge (bhavātmaka). Abstract intellectual progress is a qualitative characteristic often created within ownself caused by the imitation of external practical activative procedure. When taken as a whole, both these forms are with the nature of experience obtained through the outward environmental circumstances. The highest position of the intellectual progress obtained through knowing accordingly (anubōdha) extends up to the positions of doctorates and professorates, and transmits further on. It is a tendency that would illuminate on the base of the knowledge drawn from out side. Specially the abstract intellectual progress differs according to the environment of each individual. At a social environment in which violence and misconduct are rooted,
140 | P a g e
the abstract intelligence too follows a way route related to that environmental activation. Therefore a man of an improper behaviour is created there. At a social environment enriched with essential valises where morality is rooted, the abstract intelligence which would be built, clears the way up to the extinction of suffering, or Nibbāna. The only way of stabilization of the equivocations of morality and immorality in the Being is the use of the sense faculties. The intelligent progress and the abstract progress based by the knowing accordingly (anubōdha) would not function at any place where the five sense faculties of eye, ear, nose. tongue and body with the mind, are inactive. The whole universe which has been a nursery for the consciousness knowledge, is created according to the activation of sense organs based by the mind. That is why the Buddha taught that the world is created within ownself. The eye is the organ that recognizes colours. The colour corporealities of various forms existed all over the world. Each colour corporeality bears a name. If the name of each corporeality is not known they are not to be recognized. Similarly, if one does not know that the colours of each colour corporeality are of such and such forms, (blue red and green etc.) one would not be able to make them out or make them known to others. Yet, there is a certain approved conventional mode or form too, at each of these colour corporealities. This mode too is recognized by a name. That name too is to be known to make them out that each corporeality is of such and such form. Take a figure of a being for example. To recognize it's head. the name head has to be known, the form has to be known, and the colour has to be known. If taken a hand, a leg or another organ it is the same.
141 | P a g e
Moreover, along with the name' being' the name given to the being too is to be known.Now try to do this experiment. Think of a person who is deaf from birth. This person is unable to hear though he was told that it is of such colour corporeality. And Also can't hear though he was told of it's form. and also can't hear though he was told that it is of such colour. Not only that he doesn't know even his eye that sees the colour corporeality is known as eye. To know all these names the ear should be audible. As he doesn't hear, he doesn't know any of the names. If so the eye is a name known by hearing with the ear. All the colour corporealities and figure forms are recognized by their names heard with the ear. "Sōta is the Pāli word for ear. "Apanna" means entered upon or fallen into. "Sotapanna dhamma" is the dhamma or doctrine entered into ear. Though what is seen is taken as colour corporeality, it's details can't be known without hearing with the ear. So it is known as the dhamma entered into the ear. The recognition of the colour corporeality imitating the perceptions heard with the ear is called the mode of progress of following the stream (anusōtagāmi patipada) Here the word "stream" is used for "sōta". But it is not the ear. Stream of dhamma. Anusōtagāmi means following the way of the stream. The ear must be audible even to know the name of the organ which recognizes a sound corporeality as the ear. How does a person who is deaf from his birth know through hearing the name of the ear is ear? Every sound which is heard with ear has a name to recognize it leg: shooting sounds, singing and whistling sounds) The animals and the instruments that produce sounds bear their own names. Not only that, there are sounds produced by nature such as thundering sounds, sea noises and sounds of the blowing wind.
142 | P a g e
To recognize the sounds their names are to be heard. The names of all the sounds including the name of the ear are natures heard by the ear. If so sound corporealities too are the natures arrived in the ear. as it is also a journey proceeding on following what is heard, it is called the mode of progress of following the stream (anusōtagāmi). A smell corporeality is a sensing to the nose. These smells are recognized corresponding to each of the aggregates. The smell of pineapples is called pineapple smell. The smell of mangos is called mango smell. The smell of all fruits is recognized similarly. The smell of flowers too is recognized in the same way as rose fragrance and araliya fragrance etc. The smell of foods cooked and uncooked is too recognized in the same way. The malodours too are known similarly as mud smell, cow-dung smell, corpse smell and feces smell etc. all these are recognized by their relevent names. Now again, think of the person born deaf. He would sense a had smell. But he doesn't' know the name given to the state of bad smell, is bad smell. He would sense a smell or a fragrance too. But he doesn't know that state of fragrance is recognized by the name of 'fragrance". He doesn't know even the name of the organ which recognizes those states is the nose. To know the names of all those things, the ear, must be audible. In the knowledge gained by that deaf person through the gestures of others nothing is existing recognized by such names. The person born deaf would exactly be a mute because that he doesn't possess, any words to speak, obtained by hearing. Thus the name of the organ that senses the good or bad smell is taken as the nose and has recognized the smells that come into the nose as of different
143 | P a g e
forms are all recognitions obtained through hearing. The smell corporealities arrived in the ear(sōta) are dhammas (natures) arrived in the ear (sōtapanna dhamma). These states which proceed imitating the ear too are known as the mode of progress of following the stream (anusōtagāmi patipadā). The tongue corporealities or taste corporealities that are felt by the tongue are named in different forms.The sweetness, bitterness, salty, sourness and a stingency etc, are in the convention.Besides them there ate tastes recognized relevent to their forms such as the taste of mango, the taste of wood apple, the taste of meat, the taste of fish etc. Further more there are tastes felt not by the tongue but by the mind such as the taste of singing and the taste of Norm. There is a particular name for each taste. If these tastes had not been heard by the ear before they are then unknown. A person born deaf would feel the taste of sweetness. But he doesn't know that taste is known as the taste of sweetness. He would taste the bitterness too, but doesn't know that it is known as bitterness. The names of tastes can be known if the ear had been audible. Thus the taste corporealities too are the natures arrived in the ear (sōtāpanna). This state disposing through imitating the names of perception is the mode of progress of following the stream (anusōtagāmi patipadā) Contact corporealities are formed through the contact with the body. They are sorted as of smooth, soft, rough, coarse, pleasant and unpleasant etc. To say that a flower is touched, one has to know it by the name of flower. One can say that some cowdung is trampled under his feet, only if he knows it by the name of cowdung. To one who is born deaf is unable to know the names call flowers or cowdung. He hears no sounds at all. To say something is touched, their names should have been heard earlier. The one who is born
144 | P a g e
deaf does not know even his own body is known by the name 'body'. Thus the contact corporealities too are the natures arrived in the ear (sotāpanna) known by hearing. As this is also an imitation of what is heard and it too is the same mode of progress of following the stream (anusōtagāmi patipada) It is cleared in the above definition that every thing taken by the five sense organs are dhammas (things) known by hearing with the ear. The state of establishing all those knowledge within own self is called the consciousness. This consciousness too is a dhamma arrived in the ear (sōtapanna) but in the mode of progress of following the stream. This nature of arrival in the ear that the mode of progress of following the stream appropriate is to be investigated further. Assume that an infant lying facing up at the place of birth. That baby takes no objects whatsoever. Therefore not a single bit of name is taken into that mind. Since he began to turn down words he continuous recognizing the outer world. When he gains the speaking ability begins questioning over unceasingly. He recognized colour corporeal ities by questioning his parents. all the names of colour corporealities are made known by the elders. Then he begins to keep in his memory all the names of colour corporealities made known by the elders, having heard with the ear. all the recognitions of sounds that he heard were done according to the guidance of the elders and begins to keep them in memory. All the names of corporealities of smell, taste and contact that he felt are known by hearing over the guidance of elders and keeps them in memory. Then what had he done in going to school? Gathering knowledge through hearing with the ear, what was seen with the eye. beginning from the letter 'A'. He had been gathering knowledge heard with the ear with the details gained through investigating again and again
145 | P a g e
over what were heard and felt with the ear nose. tongue and the body. What he had done in going up to university was gathering knowledge at different occasions in the social environment through different media. Thus it is only collecting knowledge hearing with the ear over what was seen and felt. Therefore they all are dhammas arrived in the ear, which was improved up to doctorates and professorates and is the same consciousness arrived in the ear. The whole of the consciousness formed with the knowledge gathered through the ear is nothing but an illusion, a mirage. To realize the truth or the reality this illusory consciousness and perception are to cease. That is in other words, the mode of progress of following the stream (anusōtagāmi patipada) is to be omitted or to be ceased. The whole of the conventional world is overpowered by ignorance. This almighty ignorance has subjugated whole of the human society. Therefore the reality cannot be easily brought forth. The reality cannot be found in the convention which consist of perception and consciousness. So it is to he achieved through the profound doctrine taught by the Buddha. The Buddha himself had declared that his teaching was against the current (patisōtagāmi).It is known that the Buddha at his fifth week after the Enlightenment sitting at the foot of a Banyon tree, thought to himself "I have realized this Truth which is profound, difficult to see. difficult to understand and comprehensible only by the wise. The mundane beings overpowered by passions and surrounded by a mass of darkness cannot see this Truth. which is against the current and which is lofty, deep subtle and hard to comprehend." The mode of the progress against the current, would be achieved through the cessation of
146 | P a g e
the mode of the progress following the stream. It is through the mode of the progress of 'against the current' one would be able to approach the path to Nibbāna. It is the first stage in the realization of Nibbana, known as the stream Entrant (sōtapanna) Here the stream denotes or indicates the Doctrine, the stream of doctrine. One who entered into the doctrine or the stream is the stream entrant or the Stream Winner. This noble state of Stream Entrant (sōtāpanna)is attainable through the cessation of perception, seeing from within own self, omitting the 'I-ness' A vast difference is not to be visible between those early days of the Buddha and these days of ours with regard to the world or world beings. Even the Buddha himself hesitated to disclose his Noble Doctrine of the absolute Truth as he had a doubt that the mundane people would understand it. The Buddha compared the world to a lotus pond with lotuses of different stands. Some lotuses are horn in the water. grow in the water remain immersed in the water and thrive plunged in the water: and some are horn in the water, grow in the water, and remain at the surface of the water: Some others are born in the water, grow in the water and remain emerging out of the water stand above water and been untouched and unstained by the water. In the same way in this world, there are people of different levels of mentality. He found that there are some who would understand the Truth. So the Buddha decided to teach it. Not only today but during the past too, conventional human society was fully blind to the reality. That was why the Buddha had to walk along a far distance over three hundred miles seeking for five highest intellectuals of the day to speak the first words of the Truth. Similarly even today as of that early day. only a few do like to lend the ear to
147 | P a g e
hear the Truth. It is the general nature of the mundane society that most of the people are born grown and remain in the water of ignorance and never come to the surface of truth but continue with the Becoming. But there would be even a few who are firmly above water level and unstained by the ignorance. As well think a bit of the super grade prominent big shots living in our society as glittering stars blown up with states of politics, wealth, offices and influence who had and would never turn an ear to hear a single word of Truth but ready to die and go to hell.
148 | P a g e
10 THE NOBLE RESEARCH The investigation performed for vanquishing the birth and death and ending the tour of continuity of existences is called the Noble Research. The facts how the Buddha was engaged have been taken from the Noble Research Sutta. Further investigative guidance is found in the discourses delivered to the monks. The Buddha's advice is thus 'O' monks, the person who does not know or see the birth and death, should have to find out an adviser to understand properly the birth and death. The person who does not know or see the cause of birth and death should have to find an adviser to understand the cause of birth and death.The person who does not know and see the extinction of birth and death should have to find an adviser to understand properly the extinction of birth and death.The person who does not know and see the path of extinction of birth and death should have to find out an adviser to understand properly the path leading to the extinction of birth and death. That device is referred in the Buddha Research Sutta (sattu pariyēsana sutta) thus: "jarā maranan bhikkhave, ajānatā apassatā yathābhūtan jarā maranē yathābhūtan gnānāya sattha pariyesi tabbo- jāra marana samudaye ajānatā apassatā yathābhūtan jāra marana samudayē yathābhūtan gnānayā satthā pariyēsi tobbō, jara marana nirōdhan ajānāta apassatā yathābhūtan jarā marana nirōdhē yathābhūtan gnānayā sattā pariyesi tabbo jara marana nirōdha gaminin patpatipadan ajānatā apassata yathābhūtan jara marana nirōdha gāminiya pātipadāya yathābhūtan gnanayā satthā pariyēsi tobbō" This Sutta advised that in order to search for the path leading to Nibbana,it is not
149 | P a g e
necessary to find out a Buddha, but a follower eligible of leading to the path and fruition (magga pala) is sufficient for the purpose. It is stated that even a lay adviser is suitable for the purpose. There are some main objectives to be known being contacted with an efficient adviser by a person who is proceeding on in search of the way leading to Nibbāna. They are as follows. What is called the theory of Action and Effect; What is called the theory of Cause and Effect, What is called the Ego, What is called the Becoming; What is called the matter, What is called the Conditioned Genesis, What is called the Four Noble Truths. What is called the right charity, right morality and mental culture; Which are to be performed for the realization of Nibbana. They are the main objectives that are essential to be studied thoroughly. The aim of this attempt is to introduce a correct definition of them. There is nothing worth to be gained for the cessation of the suffering of the continuity of existence, from an adviser who makes known how to earn wealth and protect it, and how to develop households, villages and the land. The support for the cessation of continuity of existence can be obtained only from an adviser who teaches Dhamma being established in himself in the above mentioned oratorical features. Therefore the virtuous who are striving in the attempt of ceasing from suffering, should be associated with such a qualitative adviser. These few reasons are quoted here with the purpose to show that many clerical and lay readers and listeners with attitudes of pride in them possessing poor intelligent capacity, display their ignorance. There is no difference whether he is a layman or clergyman if he has achieved the reality of truth from within ownself.
150 | P a g e
Honour the doctrine rather than the person. What is needed for the Noble Research is the doctrine of ultimate reality but not the personal dignities. The devotees who are in search of the path leading to the realization of nibbana may perambulate on the right path clarified here with the quality of abiding relying on own self (attadipā viharatha). The Buddha taught this profound doctrine, two thousand five hundred years ago. Nothing is heard of Arahants after the venerable Arahant Maliyadeva maha Thera who is believed to be the last arhant who lived in our country. A monk named Subaddra asked Buddha, whether the Arahants would be there after passing away of himself. In answering him the Buddha declared that as far as the monks would be in right abidance, the world would not be freed of Arahants. Thus said : imēva subhaddha bhikkhu sammā vihareyyum nasunnō loke arahantēhi assa "The made up opinion today that the Arahants would not be there till the arrival of Maithri Buddha is demolished by those words of the Buddha, such an idea has never been declared by the Buddha. It is clear according to the Buddhas's expression the Arahants have disappeared today as the fourfold groups of monks, nuns, and male and female adherents have not established in themselves in a nature (dhamma) relevant to the realization of Nibbāna. (all the fourfold group is included in the Buddhas addressing of 'monks'). The common responsibility for this weakness would fall on us all. Before engaging in this research, it is essential to recognize cotrectly the data relevent to it. The Buddha has declared in the Kalama Sutta, to be thoughtful in this recognition. The given advice is as follows, "Do not be led by reports of traditions or hearsay.
151 | P a g e
Do not be led by the authority of religious texts nor by mere logic or inference nor by considering outward show nor by the seeming possibilities." Thus said: "ma anussavenāma itikiraya - mā parampāraya - mā pitaka sampadānēna - ma takka hetu- mā naya hētu -mā ākāra parivitakkēna - mā ditthi nijjānakhantiyā babbarū patāya samanō nogaru"One of the causes for these instructions was that the Buddha had found that certain monks who were dwelling with him had distorted the profound doctrine. The Buddha seeing through his farseeing wisdom the destruction which would be imposed in the Noble Doctrine in future, had declared the row of advice in favour of the future investigators of the Absolute Reality. To make the path open for the free investigators who are in search of the correct vision as the Buddha taught the profound doctrine is completely turned upside down. Though the explanations of facts relevent to the Noble Vision are found in the texts, the process of approach to the path of the Absolute Truth it is be done through a deep review.
As the right path is completely closed up today, it seems a difficult task to reform and reopen it making it facing up again. The Buddha has given the full freedom to be industrious in this Noble Research without being caught in other religious influences. On the base of that freedom any investigator or a person who had evidenced the truth,has the right to introduceany true expression relevant to the Noble Vision. The reader or the listener has the same freedom to accept or reject that opinion. Once a Brahamin by the name Ganaka Moggallana asked Buddha "O" Blessed One, do all those who hear your doctrine achieve the realization of Nibbana. The Buddha replied thus, "O" Brahamin Ganaka Moggallana, the Nibbana is there.
152 | P a g e
The path leading to Nibbana too is there. I am here too, But of my diciples with the advice and guidance given by me, some of them realize Nibbana but some others do not realize. In this concern, what am I to do? I am only a guide. I am one who has found the truth." What is to be spoken of today is the same. The facts introduced here of the vision of Truth taught by the Buddha thousands of years ago, are realized through obvious experience. Those who do realize the truth through investigating it may do so. Those who do not follow the procedure may reject the truth. It is stated in the "Acinthya (unthinkable) Sutta ' thus:"Buddha visayō acintēna cintē tabbā van cintentō- unmādassa - vighatassa - bhagi assa" it reveals that the Buddha phenomenon is inconceivable and had anyone attempted to comprehend it through thinking, he would gain a withered lunacy." It is stated in the text of Metaphysics that the Metaphysics or higher doctrine (abhidhamma) is subjective only for the intellectuals, as said "Abhidhammō nāmana annāsan visayō- sabbannu buddhānan vēva visayō" What is to be apprehended through such expressions is that the Ultimate Language (paramatta dēsanā) of the Buddha is not a doctrine that can be understood easily by all. Therefore the facts included in this profound vision is to be studied with a keen inquisitive and restrained mind impartially not being a slave to one's own learnedness and knowing accordingly (anubōdha). In this study it is essential to recognize separately the Buddhist culture, literature and the convention and the reality. This Ultimate Reality which is to be seen from within own self should be specified and identified attentively and studied clearly.
153 | P a g e
Alms giving, observing percepts and meditation are considered the basic structures of Buddhism. There is no other way to realize Nibbana without these threefold wholesome deeds (kusal). Making clear the path to Nibbāna through the correct awareness of Dāna, Sila Bhāvanā is called kusal. (developing skills is Kusala) Alms giving The first limb called alms giving is a process scattered over a wide range in different forms. A large category of different alms givings are included in the thee Baskets, the three main divisions of the pali Canon , the Basket of the Discourses,(sutta) the Basket of philosophy (Abhidhamma), the Basket of Discipline (vinaya). The alms are of two kinds, material gift (āmissa dāna) and the charity of conduct (patipatti dāna). Out of these two kinds the charity of conduct is highly praised by the Buddha. Four kinds of alms included in the Basket of Discipline, are robes (civara) mendicant food (pindapāta) lodgings (sēnāsana) and support for the sick or medicine (gilānapacca). Offering of the four alms are called four requisites offering (catu paccaya dāna) These four kinds of offerings are essential for the existence of the communityof monks for the continuation of Buddhism. In the absence of these four kinds of alms, there would hardly be an existence of the community of monks. Without the community of monks the temples and other religious centres will not exist. Then the Buddhist culture would be destructed and the mass of Buddhist texts in which the eighty four thousands of the heap of Dhamma are included and which were protected by the order of monks staking their own lives too would not last long. This would result in the downfall of the whole Dispensation in unprotected nature.
154 | P a g e
Had the books in which the Noble path relevent to the realization of Nibbana, is included, been destructed the whole of the Buddhist Dispensation would pass away. Therefore the four requisite offerings are to be protected with due respect and care.
This hospitality of treating with foods was prevailing in the society even in the pre-Buddha era. These food donations were functioned not only for the potentates and powerful, but also even for the animals. Not only that it has been revealed by the incidents like the offering of milk food of the noble woman Sujata, that the food offerings had been performed with the attitude of Gods and spirits,assuming that he was the tree-sprite the princess offered her milk-food to ascetic Siddhattha. These kinds of food offerings were found in the pre-Buddha period. These offerings of four requisites were allowed by the Buddha too. He has clarified their effects too. But the Buddha has declared these offerings functioning in the convention do not function in the reality. Thus stated in the pali text; 'natthi dinnan- natthi yitthan- natthi hutan natthi dukhatā sukkhatanan kamma phalan vipako" "The offering of alms do not function. The offering of great alms do not function. Offering alms to the receivers do not function. Therefore deed-results of merit and demerit which gain suffering or comfort are nil. That is the sense of the above stanza. What we should study is not the simple objects which are visible outwardly in the convention but which are invisible in convention and disclosed in reality. Why doesn't the giving function in reality as shown in "natthi dinnan". Assume a book is given to another person. It functions in the convention. But doesn't function in reality. Why is it so?
155 | P a g e
The person who receives the book is caught in the time which does not cease for an instant. Had he existed for an instant the motion of time is to be stopped for an instant. But it doesn't stop. He was destructed in full in the instant before this instant, caught in the time. The book too is destructed completely in that instant . The 'I' who gave the book too is destructed. When the giver and the receiver of the book and the book itself, were destructed in full together simultaneously in the same instant and the incident of giving book could not function in reality. (Read again the description of Conditioned Genesis given here early) The Buddha taught that the 'giving' that functions in the convention does not function in reality, as it is completely destroyed caught in the time. With the term "natthi yitthan" that refers to large charity (yitthi=gifted) the Buddha said that massive charities too do not function in reality. These charities such as building temples, Buddha image rooms, bridges, foot bridges of trunks, toilets and urinals etc. They all function truly in convention, but when they are considered in reality those doings, doers, donees and donors are all as mentioned before destroyed simultaneously at the same place. Had not this destruction functioned. the motion of time is to be stopped. It would never happen. Therefore the Buddha said these massive gifts too truly occur in convention but do not occur in reality. What is cleared in 'natthi hutan' is also that giving alms to receivers too does not function in reality. The monks arrived for the oblation are destructed instantly caught in the nonstop time. Within that same instant all the alms objects and all the participants present in the oblation are destructed completely.
156 | P a g e
As such though there functions an oblation of alms giving in the convention, when all the assembly of monks, all the requisites and all the participants in the oblation are subjected to simultaneous destruction, there would not function such an alms giving in reality, relevant to the teaching of Buddha. As it is the correct reality, the Buddha said that an action effect of suffering or comfort does not function in reality. If so, are these alms giving not to be performed? No it is not the solution. Those oblations should be continued as done before, with due respect. By going along the path to Nibbana there is an acute procedure of performance. What is it then? The only thing which functions within the givers and receivers of these material donations is the arising of thoughts relevant to the donation. In this procedure for alms giving, the thoughts arise relevant to the eye, is a food for the eye... Similarly the thoughts arise relevant to the other organs ear, nose, tongue and the body too are food for their respective organs. Those who are going seeking for the path to Nibbana, should have to refrain from feeding with the nutriments of consciousness (vinnana āhāra)nutriments of impression (phassa-āhāra) and the nutriments of mental volition (manō, sancētana āhāra) As far, as these nutriments are received by the sense organs they would not refrain from them, and the noble quality of dispassion (nirāmisa) would not arise within own self. If it is so. these material donations or alms giving which are normally done with arising thoughts in the clinging, should be done dropping off the clinging to the alms at the same spot, making way for the quality of dispassion or nonmaterial from
157 | P a g e
within own self to arise. The sense organs would be dispassionated there.In that dispassion a sensation wouldn't occur. Therefore the quality of insensation too would arise within own self. So where the qualities of dispassion and inanimation (avēdita) exist the eternal Buddhahood would arise there. Therefore the givers and receivers of these food donations should do it seeing the reality of the donation from within own self. What is the reality which functions there? It is the instant dispersion through breaking out and cracking off of the monks the receivers, the charity objects and the alms offerers. Therefore had there been an alms giving in the convention; that alms giving is to be done seeing from within own self that in reality all the contents related to the alms giving are dispersed through the breaking and crackingoff. The Buddha in his discourses of reality has taught clearly to drop off every thing on the same spot diligently with thorough attention. What is to be followed in these alms giving is that procedure. The path leading to Nibbana is a way that should be gone on without getting caught in the time. The normal practice of organizing an alms giving is the planning of activities a few days early. The way how all those activities are ending at the same place through breaking and crumbling off is to be seen from within ownself with thorough attention, in order for all the activities to function without being caught in the time. What happens when supplying food and drinks, light refreshments and the requisites and preparing food and drink, arranging the house, and bringing in the monks? Nothing but an arising of a lineage of thoughts of different actions. Those thoughts too disperse one by one through breaking and crumbling off. The mind too breaks off at the rate of speed corresponding to the
158 | P a g e
breaking off of the offering of alms, assignation of merits and rejoicing of merits. The body too goes on breaking and crumbling off. .
The whole lineage of thoughts of the oblation from the beginning up to the end of rejoicing of merits have gone dispersed converting into consciousness moments at the same place. Would a mind be created at such a place where even a consciousness moment has not remained? It would not be created. Where a mind is not created would there be a being, a person or an 'I'? It would not be created. Then the monks who participated in the alms giving, the supporters who gave the alms, and the alms itself are only a lineage of thoughts ended there itself. The alms giving functioned in the convention. There is no dispute about it. But when it is considered in reality no such alms giving had functioned. Neither a giver nor a receiver of alms nor even alms objects were there. It is only the truth that is to be followed in the journey going for the realization of Nibbāna. Now what is the truth of this alms giving'? The real truth is that there hadn't been an alms giving. All who participated in the alms giving seeing front within own self that such an alms giving has not functioned. definitely attain Nibbana, ending the continuity of existence, having arrived in the cessation of Becoming. Had the monks who received alms, been engaged in that activity seeing through wisdom from within own self, that the same alms giving had not functioned, they would definitely approach the path leading to Nibbana. They who enjoy the alms giving oblation grasping with it and they who console themselves with possessing merit of the alms giving,unaware of the reality would suffer in the continuity of existence through rebirth, ageing, illness and death. They may take any path as they like.Offering and giving too are
159 | P a g e
interpretations used for 'dana'. But the right interpretation for 'dana' is to be freed or released or liberated from attachment. Emitting or omitting every thing too is the same. Where that emitting functions neither merit nor demerit would be in action. Had they both occured, rebirh too would function for their sensation. The Buddha taught to follow the middle path, avoiding the two extremes of merit and demerit or comfort and suffering, in order to lead to the ultimate of nonexistence. He taught that devotion to the indulgence of sense pleasure or being addicted to sense pleasure (kama sukahallikiānu yoga) which is linked with the merit is mean or low, vulgar, ignoble or unattainable to Nibbāna, worldly or the way of ordinary people, unworthy and unprofitable. And devotion or addicted to self mortification (attakila matānu yoga) which is linked with the demerit, and full of suffering is painful, ignoble and unprofitable; and following the middle path, which is unaltered and undesignated avoiding those two extremes, the highest enlightenment or the Buddhahood can be obtained.Thus said, "dvē mē bhikkhavē antā pabbajitēna na sevitabbā-yōcā yan kāma sukhalliknu yoga hinō – gammō- anariyo - potagjanikō- anatta sanhito- yo cayan - attakilamatānu yōgō - dukkhō - anariyō anatta sanhitō - ubhō antē anupagamma majjimā patipadā tatāgatēna abhisambuddhā.
"Following the middle path, avoiding those two extremes of merit and demerit or being unattached or undesignated for being amoral (avyākata) is the element or the principle of Nibbana. There are six kinds of gifts which are to be functioned for being undesignated given in the Basket of Metaphysics (Abhidhamma pitaka) They are named as the gift of colour, gift to sound, gift of taste, gift of contact and the gift of the Norm. Certain Buddhist scholars who had not attempted deep investigations in it, had misinterpreted
160 | P a g e
these gifts included in the Basket of Metaphysics or higher doctrine in which deep interpretation of the ultimate truth of mind, mental factors, corporealities and Extinction are introduced. These childish interpretations are as follows. The gift of corporeality is marvellously interpreted as offering of the colour materials used in painting statues. The offering of bells, dogmatic pamphlets and performing sound oblations are the amazing exegesis of the gift of sound. The gift of smell is taken as offering of odorous flowers. and incense smoke. The gift of taste for them is the offerings of tasty food Then their gift of contact is the offerings of clothes, sheets, coverings and furniture. And the gift of Norm is interpreted as sermons and distributing dogmatic texts. According to this so called interpretations all the six gifts are fallen into the group of material gifts. The Buddha reveals facts of an extremely noble gift that cause to realization of Nibbāna. rather than the material gifts . It is called the gift of conduct (patipatti dāna) The Buddha's main advice in revealing the path leading to Nibbana was to be freed from worldly affairs and to see every thing from within own self. If so this gift of principle is to function within own self. For that functioning of the gift of principle within own self, those principles are to exist within own self. If it is so, what are the principles to be found in own self? The principle of the eye is the constant receivability of a colour corporeality. Receiving a sound corporeality is the principle of the ear. The tongue, a taste corporeality. The body a contact corporeality, and the principle of mind is creating a mental corporeality relevent to it's nature. As far as these principles are maintained by the six spheres (salāyatana) the consciousness is to be created. Then there occurs the birth forming the Becoming. When the birth occurs the death follows it. But conquering the birth and death is the realization of Nibbana. In order
161 | P a g e
to conquer the birth and death, the Becoming which is the base of the birth is to end. To end the Becoming, the attachment which caused it should end. To avoid attachment, the craving which caused it should be avoided. As the craving is caused by the sensation that too is to be avoided. To avoid sensation the contact that caused it should be avoided. To avoid the contact, the six spheres that caused it are to be avoided. To avoid the six shares the mental and physical phenomena which are created by the six spheres should be avoided. To avoid mental and physical phenomena it is needed to be refrained from the volitional actions which is the nature of creating mental and physical phenomena. The volitional action or the thought is formed through ignorance or the unawareness.
The three forms of the colour corporeality, that come into contact with the eye, the eye itself and the thought of that colour corporeality vanishes in the arising itself simultaneously in an instant. The three forms of the sound corporeality that come into contact with the ear the ear itself and the thought of that sound corporeality vanishes within the arising itself simultaneously in an instant. The three forms of the smell corporeality that come into contact with the nose, the nose itself and the thought of that smell corporeality vanishes in the arising itself simultaneously in an instant. The three forms of taste corporeality that come into contact with the tongue, the tongue itself and the thought of that taste corporeality vanishes in the arising itself simultaneously in an instant. The three forms of the contact corporeality that come into contact with the body the body itself and the thought of that contact corporeality vanishes in the arising itself simultaneously in an instant.
162 | P a g e
The three forms of the mental corporeally that come into contact with the mind, the mind itself and the thought of that mental corporeality vanishes in the arising itself simultaneously in an instant. The ordinary person who is unaware of this destruction assuming these corporealities of colour, sound, smell, taste, contact and the mental corporeality are in existence, does grasp them hard. As long as this grasping or clinging functions, the being would be subjected to suffering, creating the consciousness and forming the Becoming. The attachment of colour which occurs when a colour corporeality comes into contact with the eye must cease in order to cease from dukkha (suffering). It is called the gift of colour that omits the colour corporeality. The attachment of sound which occurs when a sound corporeality comes into contact with the ear must cease. It is called the gift of sound that omits the sound corporeality. The attachment of smell which occurs when a smell corporeality comes into contact with the nose must cease. It is called the gift of smell that omits the smell corporeality. The attachment of taste which occurs when a taste carporeality comes into contact with the tongue must cease. It is called the gift of taste that omits the taste corporeality. The attachment of contact which occurs when a contact corporeality comes into contact with the body must cease. It is called the gift of contact that omits the contact corporeality. In this function of five gifts, the five corporeal Dhammas (natures or circumstances) of colour, sound, smell, taste and contact would be omitted from within own self. This omittance of 'Dhammas' from within own self is the gift of Dhammas (dhamma dāna). It should be known that this gift consisted of six limbs occurring from within own self,
163 | P a g e
is the noble sixfold gifts (sangika danā) included in the Metaphysics (Abhidhamma). With the function of this gift of Dhamma, the principle or the regulation of behaviour or the component of attachment by the six spheres as corporealities of colour, sound, smell, taste, contact and mentality would be ended. What is called as gift of principle (patipatti dana) that occurs from within own self is the gift that functions in the omittance or cessation from the attachment. The gift of principle that is functioned from within own self is the gift made out by the Buddha as nobler than material gifts with food and drinks. The Metaphysics or the higher doctrine is a profound and accurate definition of mind. It leads to be freed from mind. It should be known that this sixfold gift shown in the Metaphysics is the only gift (dāna) which enables to see Nibbāna having seen the Buddha and freed from the mind. All these gifts (dāna) function completely from within own self at an instant through the cessation of perception having ended the attachment. At this instant the concept of being which consists of the six spheres would end. Therefore the sixfold gifts which are omitted from the six limbs of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind too function. In the functioning of these sixfold gifts, the being called 'I' which had been subjected to death so far, would be freed from that death. There would occur from within own self, the gift of safety or grant of amnesty (abbaya dana) which means letting free a being who had been condemned to death. The function of all sorts of these gifts is based by the wise consideration (yōnisō manasikāra) or the mindfulness (sati) which is kept from within ownself. The cessation of perception would occur when this mindfulness is omitted automatically at an unknown instant.
164 | P a g e
It is the gift of mentality or mindfulness (sari dāna) which helps for the realization of Nibbana from within ownself. If this gift of mindfulness had not functioned, a seeing of Buddha or a seeing of Nibbāna would never occur. All these gifts function in this way in an instant from within ownself. It is not another different instant but it is the same present instant in which the being is created having arisen the concept of being. functioning the conditioned Genesis, creating the Four Noble Truths and forming the doctrine of Cause and Effect. The Morality - virtue or Ethical conduct Then we would make a definition on morality (sila) the second limb. The first part of the triple discipline of morality,concentration or mental discipline (samādhi) and wisdom (pound) in the teaching of Buddhism, is known as the morality. The personnel who establish themselves in morality, which is embodied the virtuousness, are called the Fourfold Personnel of monks, nuns, male adherents and the female adherents. The morality is explained thus: "The wise man does form his mind into prudentiality with moral rationality. That monk who endeavours always to have his mind against being subdued by defilements would become an unconfessed wholesome person releasing all the discomforts Thus said, "Sile paticcāya naro sapannō" cittan pannanca bhāvayan atāpi nipakō bhikkhu - sō iman vijataye jatan." The one who is being fixed in morality does untie all the tangles, being restrained from within ownself. What is the greatest difficulty the being has?. It is the subjection to the Dukkha of birth. ageing, sickness and death in continuing the tour of becoming. Had this confusion not ended, it is unable to declare that all the embarrassments had ended. All these embarrassments
165 | P a g e
would end with the realization of Nibbāna through which the being gets extinguished. The Nibbana would be realized when the consciousness is omitted. The consciousness would be omitted when the knowledge obtained through listening and gathering is omitted. There the great wisdom of super-mundanity is arisen having dropped off the mundane wisdom of consciousness and hearing. The arising of the great wisdom is defined as the state of wised-up nature in the mind (cittan pannānanca bhāvayan). The moralities which are in practice today are to be investigated in order to unconceal the appropriate morality which is to be practiced for the great wisdom to untie the serious tangle of birth ageing, sickness and death. Having selected through such an investigation the most appropriate source of morality which would be in favour of Nibbāna, and to be in practice accordingly being established in that morality would be needed today itself for the comfort of Nibbana. There are different varieties of morality. The traditional (cāritta) morality and the exclusive (vāritta) morality are the main divisions of morality. Another division is the clerical morality and the house hold morality (Pabbajita sila and gahatta sila). The general divisions are the five precepts (panca sila), the eight fold precepts (attanga sila), and ten precepts (dasa sila). The five precepts is the general morality of layfolks. The Eightfold precepts and Ten precepts are known as moralities of livelihood (ajiva sila). The clerical morality (pabbajita sila) is mainly for the clergy. When taken as a whole, to be established in morality is known as observance or acceptance of morality (silā sāmadana). The five precepts, eight precepts and ten precepts relevant to morality were the higher qualities linked with the philosophy of Veda found in the pre-Buddha era.
166 | P a g e
Even the emperors. kings and chief ministers the super personages in the society in the early days abided by or participated with the precepts. When prince Siddhatta conceived in the womb of queen Maha maya, she had abided by the precepts. It revealed that the observation of precepts had prevailed in the early society prior to the Buddha. What the Buddha taught was not a doctrine which existed early in the world. It was accepted even by the Brahamins who had been engaged in observances of morality. They had declared that what Buddha taught was unheard before. Observation of morality or precepts is the basic quality of creating a noble person. The path for the realization of Nibbāna would be cleared after that noble human quality has been observed. So it should be done today itself. It should be done in the future too. Because it is the basic foundation of the path leading to Nibbāna. The profound study of the noble vision, should be done after refraining from malevolence such as flesh eating. Therefore the five precepts in the convention are to be protected compulsorily as they lead to the abstention from killing, taking ungiven things, sexual misconduct, lying and taking intoxicants. The following definition of the Ultimate Reality is done here, in favour of the virtuous who are being established in noble qualities such as observation of morality, to assist them to clarify the path leading to Nibbāna, having gone beyond those bounds. So I do like to emphasize that these definitions are not to be interpreted as against the observation of morality. When the Dhammas relevant to the Noble Vision, are introduced many of them would misunderstand it. They do senseless and guilty comments that the Dhamma is distorted. I do emphasize that the Absolute Reality that I do discuss
167 | P a g e
here is the Ultimate Truth, the only Dhamma of most rarefactive, taught by the Buddha for the realization of Nibbana. Other than attempting to comprehend it, engaging over baseless and senseless comments would only result in the individual being mislead. Those who are in haste to see the Nibbana may soon comprehend this profound Noble Vision. All these moral practices in the convention are conducted applying the knowledge gathered from outside, in the concept of 'I'. A precept can't be observed freedfrom arising thoughts. What ever the form of thought that arose whether of comfort, suffering or of indifference, the Becoming would be created there. So the being is born there. The death too is there at the place of birth. The Nibbana is to be realized to be freed from birth and death. For that, one should be freed from the Becoming where the being is born. To be freed from Becoming one should be freed from the thought which creates it. The thought arises when the six spheres get contacted with the outer world and had been wrongly viewed. Until this functioning of this wrong viewness caused by the ignorance is not ceased, the mind within ownself wouldn't be restrained. The quality of the pleasantness (sādu guna) is created after ending receiving perceptions by the three doors of mind, body and word. Thus said: "kāyēna sanwarō sādu - sādu wacāya sari - manasd sanawarb sādu - sabbatta sādu sanwarō" The route approachable for the realization of Nibbana is more profound. The main object of it is the cessation of the suffering of Becoming. The wisdom is essential for the purpose. Thus the Buddha says, that the mind which has been established with moral conduct should be filled up with wisdom. The morality for the progression of wisdom is
168 | P a g e
not a formation contractible with only, being established in the precepts in the convention. It should be gone far deep over that limit. What is meant by all are to be seen from within own self, for the realization of Nibbana is one's own attempt without any outsider or any outer object. Nothing taken from outside should be connected with it. Moreover, any being or person including the being called 'I' should not be connected with it. 'I' is a one who feels sensation. The thoughts are to be arisen for it. The volition or the conception is the action or deed (kamma). Thus said: "cētanāhan bikkhavē kamman wadāmi" ('O' monks, I declare that the volitions are kamma) As long as the "I" is existed the theory of Action and Effect (kamma phala vada) linked with kamma is created there. In order to realize Nibbana having ceased from the theory of Action and Effect that makes the self (atma) first of all the concept of 'I' should be abstained. Why it should be so is that the theory of Cause and Effect introduced by the Buddha is a doctrine of non-being, non-person, non-doer or a non-causer. If anyone behaves according to the teaching of the Buddha, that one should have to do it freed from the state of being or person. If anything is done being in the state of being and person it is a completely opposite way of Nibbana, unconcealed by the Buddha. Selecting the right way is to be done with profound wisdom. The Buddha taught that the whole world is in ownself and it goes breaking and cracking off at the same place. According to this instruction the natures of being and person are nil. The moralities conducted in the convention and a being to conduct them too are nil. It is the reality. Now we should have to find out what would be the morality that can be conducted according to the reality.
169 | P a g e
We do follow the five precepts outwardly. It should be done so. Let us investigate deeply how to see it from within ownself. Protecting the five precepts is to refrain from five misdeeds of killing, robbing, misconduct, lying and consuming liquor. As long as one, is being complicated with the illusion of the concept of the 'I', the path leading to Nibbāna would not be cleared. It has been given in the definition of the Conditioned Genesis mentioned before that the concept of the 'I' is created with the thought arising in the present instant. The five aggregates of matter, sensation, perception, mental formation and the consciousness, are created at the arising of a thought due to ignorance. These aggregates are nothing but only the mental corporealies or mental images. Those images too would vanish within the arising itself. There is no being or person here, of any form. No doer or a causer exists. Thus no one called 'I' exists in reality. The conclusion given that an 'I' exist is done by 'I' myself. The being called 'I' was created by the 'I' (me) and the decision that the being called 'I' would die too is made by the 'I' (me). Thus the birth and death of the 'I' is made through the concept created by the 'I' itself. Who has done that creation of an 'I' (where there is no one called 'I') and who has put that 'I' into death? Had it been done by an outsider? No by none but by 'I' myself. Then what had functioned there? It is the killing functioned within own self, which is called 'I' is killed by 'I' myself. Owing to that the concept is clarified as the action ( kamma) putting the being called 'I' into death through the concept is to be known as the killing being done within own self through the concept. In order not to being functioned the unwholesome of killing he should be abstained from the place where the being called 'I' is condemned to death within ownself. That is the place from where the
170 | P a g e
unwholesome act of killing is ended completely, in order to abstain from the attachment (upādana) that based the birth. Had it not functioned so, the first precept of abstaining from killing wouldn't be protected completely from within ownself. The second precept is the abstinence of taking things not given or belonging to others. The consciousness is the knowledge gathered from the outer world. It is a knowledge completely gathered from others since infancy, inquiring from the parents and close neighbours. I received this knowledge even without the permission of them, who gave that knowledge. Therefore when considering it in reality to abstain from the defilement of taking ungiven things, from within ownself, should have to be ceased completely from the consciousness formed with others knowledge. The only way to cease from consciousness is the omittance of thought that arises constantly instant by instant with the wise consideration. It is a very difficult task. But if it is proliferated constantly with great courage the realization of Nibbana would happen having occured the cessation of perception even at an unknown instant. The abstaining from sexual misconduct is the third of the five precepts. It is an essential quality for the well-being of the society. If this precept had not existed men would fall into the state of animals. The abstaining from sexual misconduct in the sense of reality is a profound nature gone far beyond that bounds. Pleasing the eye, ear, nose, tongue and the body is the five sense pleasures taken in reality. As long as these pleasures are in action the creation of the craving for sense pleasure (kama tanhā) the craving for existence and Becoming (bhava tanhā), and the craving for nonexistence or self annihilation (vibhava tanhā) would be continued. These are the main hindrances to Nibbana. According to the
171 | P a g e
doctrine of Cause and Effect a being called 'I' does not exist. The existence in this fixation of non-being would cause to cease from craving. The non-existence of a being called 'I' is defined here under different topics. When a being is not existing in reality, so all the conventional spheres of eye, ear, nose, tongue body and the mind too would not exist. Where the six spheres do not exist the corporealities of colour, sound, smell, taste, contact and mentality too do not exist. What is sensed in the convention as the being called 'I', the six spheres and an outer world with corporealities subjected to the relevant six spheres is utterly a nonentity in the reality. This is the sexual misconduct or the misconduct in sense pleasure, from within ownself known as being into wrong will, shown through the Absolute Truth (paramatta dhamma) In order to be protected deeply the precept of the abstinence from sexual misconduct should be abstained from this illusory sensation front within own self caused by ignorance. The only way possible to abstain from it is the omittance at the same place every thought that arises instantly within ownself heedfully through the wise consideration (yoniso & manasikāra) Abstaining from false speech is the fourth precept. The only thing that happens by every deed done in the convention, is the arising of thoughts. These thoughts cease within the arising itself, at the same place one by one. When it happens in this way the conventional world that formed within own self based by thoughts would cease within the arising itself. In addition to this function the whole universe including the world is destructed caught in the non stop time. The being called 'I' too would be destroyed caught in the same time. The ordinary person who is ignorant of the reality, tells lies taking into consideration that all
172 | P a g e
these exist and 'this is me and these are mine'. All the words spoken not knowing the reality. are lies. For the abstinence from lying one, should use words seeing from within own self the thoughts arising in the mind, and how they are destroyed, through breaking off and comprehending it. If one uses words unaware of the reality, the precepts of abstaining from lying is not be protected completely from within own self. Abstaining from liquor is the fifth precept. Had this not been done so a human multitude of misconduct would be created. So this precept is to be protected. The precept of abstaining from liquor which is to be protected from within own self for entering into the path leading to Nibbāna, is a more profound doctrine gone far beyond those bounds. It is a distortion or mutation of mind. The formation of being intoxicated when taken in reality from within ownself is to be investigated. When a colour corporeality comes into contact with the eye, an intoxication occurs there, as if it is such image. When a sound corporeality comes into contact with the ear, an intoxication occurs there, as if it is such and such sound. When a smell corporeality comes into contact with the nose, an intoxication occurs there, as if it is such and such smell. When a taste corporeality comes into contact with the tongue an intoxication occurs there as if it is the such and such taste. When a contact corporeality comes in contact with the body, an intoxication occurs there, as if it is such and such contact. When a mental corporeality arises in mind, an intoxication occurs there, as if it is such and such mental image. Sensing that these corporealities are beautiful, ugly, sweet, unpleasant fragrant, stinking, tasty, tasteless, soft, rough, comfortable and sorrowful, one gets into an intoxication there too. In addition to that would be being intoxicated with one's own wealth, caste, influence,
173 | P a g e
posts, learnedness and children. What would happen creating thoughts with non- thoughts on these objects is a distortion of the creation of a mind with a non- mind. This is what the distortion of mind having been intoxicated with drinking of liquor, functioning in ownself. This precept of abstaining from liquor is to be protected from within ownself, every thought that arises instantly should be dropped off, seeing their destruction on the same spot, through breaking and crumbling off, with heedfulness and wise consideration (yōniso manasikāra) it is the place at where this precept is protected completely. The cessation of perception or the moment of ceasing and waning perceptions, is the highest position of restraining being established in moral conduct. Perceptions do arise there in billions, caused by the aggregates or groups of matter and sensation etc., which are built at the arising of a thought in ownself. When that thought ceases within the arising itself, the billions of perceptions which were arisen there too would cease. The seeing through wisdom from within ownself, at the same place, of this arising and cessation in which occurs the cessation of billions of perceptions that arise in an instant is the right moral conduct which is to be maintained for the realization of Nibbana. This is called the morality of ceasing ten million of perceptions or "ten million - restrained morality" (kōtika sanwara sila). This is the moral conduct that the Buddha taught to the devotees who are in the attempt of realizing Nibbāna. This morality would be completed at the cessation of perception. The Buddha has taught a noble morality to follow for the same purpose. It is called "dittinca anupagamma sila"means the morality of not being a follower of mere views or not falling into wrong views. it is stated in the Mena sutta that, if one could be skiIlfull,to be established or fixed in this morality, he would not return to
174 | P a g e
enter into a womb again or never again come entangled in rebirth.Thus said; "ditthinca anupagamma silavā dassanēna sampannō, kamesuvineyya gedan na hi jātu gabba seyyan punarē titi" The Buddhism which is based on the theme of the doctrine of cause and effect introduces a philosophy entirely freed from the state of being or person. In this process occurs being on account of causal genesis being originating causal effects on the same spot and being ceasing those causal effects on the same spot, a being in any form does not exist. What is created is only the aggregates of matter,sensation, perception, formation and consciousness, that was built caused by ignorance, and the same five aggregates of attachment. The concept of matter and the concept of mind that is created in the arising of these aggregates or heaps is not a being called 'I'. This reality is shown throughtout the whole view of the Absolute Truth. If one comprehended this profoundity before hand the journey further onward would be easy. To that intellectual the Nibbana is to be at hand. Where a state of being or person is absent the six spheres too do not exist. At such a place the objects as matter and sound do not exist. If any vision arises that a being is there in reality, it is a wrong sight, wrong view or heresy. This heresy is built caused by the arising of thoughts. This arising of thoughts can be stopped by none. It occurs in accordance with the doctrine of cause and Effect. What ought to be done is only to see Through wisdom the origination and cessation of the thought. Seeing it so, one would not fall into wrong view. Does not take them as corporealities of colour, sound, smell, taste and contact. When no views are arisen there would not be creations of perceptions. As the
175 | P a g e
perceptions cease, on the same spot they would not be born in the womb of eye in which colour corporealities are arisen. Would not be born in the womb of ear where sound corporealities are born. Would not be born in the womb of nose where smell corporealities are born. Would not be born in the womb of tongue where taste corporealities are born. Would not be born in the womb of body where contact corporealities are born. Would not be born in the womb of mind where mental corporealities are born.
What is said is that one who is not fixed in views doesn't return to enter a womb again, in this nonexistence in the womb of six spheres. This is what is known as the morality of not falling into wrong views that does not originate views. This morality of not falling in to wrong views (ditthinca anupagamma sila) is to be proliferated within ownself, by the same ownself. This practice cannot be done joining with other personnel. That is why the buddha has advised to seek calm and uninhabited remote places like tree foots, rock caves and forests for the practice of this morality. When mastering within ownself, going on seeing the cessation in the origination itself all the activities done in the convention, being in separating alone is automatically functioned. Do continue with all your every day personal activities as done before, such as going to school, performing official duties, household activities and working in the fields and estates. Try to practice as far as possible seeing within ownself the cessation in the origination itself of all the activities. This is the working being fixed in the morality of not falling into wrong views. Working thus being fixed in this morality engaging in all the activities, at each occasion in the same work is the right path leading to Nibbana.
176 | P a g e
The meditation or the mental culture (bhāvanā) gains a prominent place in the three wholesome or virtues which are to be mastered for the development of triple discipline (tri - shikshā) of morality, concentration and wisdom
(sila,samādhi,pannā). Nothing can be introduced of Nibbana, out of meditation. Meditation and Nibbāna are so far amalgamated together. But what we should be aware of is that what should be the appropriate meditation practicable for the realization of Nibbāna. Meditation (bhāvana) The meditation or the mental culture is of two kinds; as Tranquality (samata) and Insight (vidassanā) The meditation of Tranquality is introduced in forty methods. They are summarized into seven sub divisions; namely ten meditations of the whole (kasina) ie object of meditation; ten of impurity (asubha) ten of mindfulness or memory (anussati) four of infinitude or boundless states (appamanna) loving kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity four of incorporeal or non substantial (arūpa) one of food loathsomeness (āhāra patikkūla); one meditation of analysis of four elements (catu dhātu vavattana) ie, fluidity, heat, motion and solidity. Definitions of these meditations are not included here as they are available in many books, The meditation of mindfulness of in and out breathing (ānapānasati bhāvanā) which is included in the group of mindfulness meditation (anussati bhāvanā) which are accepted as the advanced methods of meditations of Tranquility, too was a system of meditation existed before the Buddha era. The deep inhalation and the moderate exhalation are known as the respiratory
177 | P a g e
theory. This procedure had been followed by the Fakirs and ascetics of ancient India and Tar Dyes of ancient China. Later it had been practiced by the Buddhists of Small Vehicle (hina yāna)and the Great Vehicle maha yāna) and certain mystic or latent Buddhists of Tibet. By these facts it is clear that though this meditative system of mindfulness of in and out breathing is followed by certain Buddhists groups, it had been prevailing long ago prior to Buddha. The Indian legends and traditional folk- lore reveal that the ancient Indians were with the belief of prejudice of long life concerning the number of respirations occurred since ones birth. It is stated that it caused to long- life. It is clear that the thorough attention on the process of respiration is a fruitful attempt to keep one's mind in pacification freed from the denteritorious thoughts of anger and hatred. It is further stated that the ascetics had practiced this respirational meditation in order to prevail with a one pointedness of mind in favour of gaining a long- life with a pleasant body. Some say that prince Siddhatta attained Enlightenment through the practice of the meditation of mindfulness of in and out breathing. But the doctrine of Cause and Effect taught by the Buddha refuses the concept of being. The doctrine of cause and Effect is only an origination of aggregates of matter and sensation etc. Though the respiration is accepted because of the egoism with the state of being and person in the convention which is formed by the ignorance when it is counted by the reality, it is better to be considered with intelligence whether there would be a respiration in the doctrine of Cause and Effect in which a being or person is absent. The spheres such as the sphere of Boundless Space (ākāsannāyatana) are the highest
178 | P a g e
states of the meditation of Tranquility. They who meditate in the Sphere of Boundless Space which is the first step of Immaterial Absorption (arūpa dyāna) do not go to objects of the matter, sound, smell, taste and contact. They see only the emptiness or the space. They meditate on the eternity or the limitlessness of the space. They will be born there. They who practice this meditation see that the space too is in the consciousness. Then proceed to meditate on the limitlessness of the consciousness, and reach to the Sphere of Boundless Consciousness (vinnānāyatana). They will be born there. They who practice this meditation, do see nothing except consciousness.They meditate on nonentity or nothingness and reach the sphere of the Conception of Nonentity (ākincannā yatana) They will be born there, They who meditate so, seeing the nothingness reach the sphere of Neither perception Nor Nonperception (nēvasannā nāsannā yatana) where incertainity of perception is felt. (it is a semi-consciousness state which is surpassed only by the state of complete suspense of consciousness called attainment of Extinction (nirōdha samāpatti). They meditate there on Tranquillity. They will be born there. What is referred in the popular stanzaic line 'Sita misa kaya neti bamba Iowa sataraki' is that there are four super heavens only with the mind but without body. They who are born in each sphere at that same occasion when they are meditating will have only the mind. Besides this, the belief of other super heavens are inapplicable with the teaching of the Buddha who has introduced a theory of Cause and Effect. The mind too is nothing but the consciousness. According to Buddha's teaching when the consciousness is compared to
179 | P a g e
a mirage, these immaterial spheres are only the concepts of wrong views created within ownself. The maximum results that can be achieved by the meditation of Tranquillity is the formation of a pure mind caused by the association of pacific thoughts. Arising of a thought whether it is of suffering comfort of neither painful nor joyful is nothing but being born due to ignorance. Though what sort of a thought is arisen the birth and death would be created forming the Becoming. Prince Siddhatta who had been practising this tranquil meditation dwelling with asceties Bhaggava, Alārakalama, Uddakarāma Putta and the five ascetics, kept them off as they were of no use in the attempt of conquering the continuity of existence. Although they are useless in favour of the realization of Nibbana., they do no hindrance to the task but would be helpful to it. Selecting the right way is the best thing to he done. During the days of the Buddha,devotees realized Nibbana through introspection or observation of insight (vipassanā) This insight which is the power of seeing into and deep thinking is also known as vipassanā, vidarsanā and the fourfold mindfulness (catu satipatthāna). Two groups of persons who do realize Nibbāna through cultivation of insight are mentioned in the Metaphysics or higher doctrine (abhidhamma). They are introduced as belonging to the Tranquil Vehicle (samata yānika) and the Insightful Vehicle (Vipassana yānika). They who having cultivated the meditation of Tranquillity and then do cultivate the meditation of Insight and realize Nibbana belong to the group of Tranquil Vehicle. They who begin with the meditation of Insight and realize Nibbāna without practicing
180 | P a g e
Tranquillity belong to the group of Insightful Vehicle. It is revealed in this definition that the meditators of Tranquillity have to practice compulsorily the Insightful meditation to attain Nibbāna. The realization of Nibbana can be obtained only by Insightful meditation without practicing Tranquillity. Suneeta, Sōpaka, Angulimala Bahiya, Santati and Patacāra realized Nibbana not when they were practicing. Tranquillity. In the way that the princes of Bhadda vagga, the youth Yasa, the three matted haired ascetic brothers and Kasie Baradwaja had attained ,Nibbāna by realizing the Truth reveals that the attainment of Nibbāna could be achieved by hearing Buddha's sermons. It is said that the first discourse in Sri Lanka by Arahant Mahinda, the second Buddha, they who realized Nibbana were over forty thousand. Similar examples can be found more in the texts. Some of the venerable Theras in the present day too lead devotees in the correct way of meditation. Some of us may think that the path and fruition (magga phala) could be achieved only by clergy but not by layfolks. There is no difference of lay and clergy for the path leading to Nibbāna. If one has selected the right system of meditation and proceeded on cultivating them the results are to be obtained with no difference for layand clergy. It is stated in the Buddhist history during the time of the Buddha that sixty monks had realized and attained the fruition of holiness (arahanta phala) having received the subjects of meditation or working ground (kammatthāna)from a female lay adherent by the name Matika Matha (mother of Mathika Gama) at the village called Matika in the kingdom of Kosala. The intelligent reverent Theras advised that the lay friends who are in desire to overcome suffering in this samsaric existence, should cultivate introspection by exploring the here and now of own
181 | P a g e
self through insight while leading their household life perfoming all the duties and day to day work without waiting for meditation being ordained and gone into forest. They have also emphasized that when being trained in the meditation one would be capable of cultivating it successfully among one's own day to day activities. It is not meant there, in order to follow the Noble path one should be ordained and wear yellow robes. Through these expressions it is clearly shown that it is not wrong whether a lay person or a clergy to seek advice of the noble path even from a female devotee who is aware of the process of insight, and also anybody would be able to cultivate the process of insight among one's own professional duties. In the days of the Buddha, there had been innumerable number of householders who had realized the Absolute Truth while they were proceeding with their house - hold activities and professional duties. Even today the cultivation of mindfulness through meditative processes is popular among the people of Burma and Thailand. The insight (Vipassana) is the intuitive light flashing forth and exposing the truth of the impermanency, the suffering and the impersonal and unsubstantial nature of existence. The culmination of insight (Vipassanā) practice is the contemplation of the four Foundations of mindfulness or awareness of mindfulness of the body. sensation, mind and mind-objects. They are also called fourfold mindfulness meditation. The contemplation of body is to be with thorough attention on the body. The contemplation of sensation or feeling is to be with thorough attention on the sensation. The contemplation of mind is to be with thorough attention on mind.The contemplation of mind objects (dhamma) is to be with thorough attention on the subjects of mind, the phenomenal natures, What the Buddha always
182 | P a g e
instructed was to be established with the thorough attention or wise consideration (yōnisō manasikāra). This is also known as the maintenance of mindfulness (satipatthāna). The Buddha had advised devotees always to be in diligence with the meditation of the four foundations of mindfulness which is the conclusive juncture of extinction of the everlasting suffering of the samsaric existence. Thus said the Buddha. "Appamado amata padan - pamāda maccunō padan Appamattā na - miyanti - ye pamattā yatā matā" "Heedfulness is the way to deathlessness. Headlessness is the way to death. The heedful do not die; The heedless are like the dead"
(This term "the heedful do not die" does not mean that the heedful are immortal. The idea implied here is that the heedful who realize the deathless Nibbana and death.) Where a person should be heedful is the place where the being exists. At the last instant, ie; the instant before the present instant, the being was completely destroyed. At the next instant, ie; the instant after the present instant too, a being does not exist, because it is not yet born. So a being does not exist to cultivate the fourfold mindfulness in the past called the last instant and in the future called the next instant. Thus the being which should have to cultivate insight, exists only in this instant. The being born in this present instant would die in the same instant and doesn't go into the next instant. (for further details please read are beyond both, birth
183 | P a g e
the chapter on the cessation of Conditioned Genesis). So the lifetime of the being called 'I' is a single instant that vanishes in the origination itself. It is only in this very instant the body, the sensation, the mind and the mind - objects exist. The being called 'I' is born in this instant with an arising of a thought and creating the mind. Had the mind not been born with the body, the 'I' would not be there, because a body would not be there where a mind does not exist. The mind and the body were destroyed completely in the instant before. Thus both the mind and the body were reborn at the same time in this instant. And one of the corporealities of colour. sound, smell, taste and contact does create in this instant. Had not one of the corporealities been created, both the body and mind would not be born. Thus it is clear that all the three natures of the mind. body and mind-object (dhammatā) would be born, in the same instant caused by conditioning each other. They were born so as the nature that contacted was sensed. Had not the sensation functioned a being would not be born, a body would not be horn, a nature would not be born. If it is so, the body the sensation, the mind and the mind object arose together and simultaneously in the same instant. The functioning of the doctrine of Cause and Effect and the Conditioned Genesis are the same. The body sensation mind and mind-object that were born in this instant would not go to the next instant. Because the thought which caused to arise those four, does cease within the arising itself. The mind that arose corresponding to that thought too would cease within the arising itself. Similarly the body sensation and the mind- object too cease within the arising. In accordance to this instant- occurring, there would be nothing remaining to go into the next instant. Therefore it is impossible to see the sensation, after seeing the body, to see the mind after seeing the
184 | P a g e
sensation or to see the mind- object after seeing the mind. It is impossible to do it, as it is caught in the time .In order to be functioned the four fold mindfulness in no-time all those four natures created are to be seen in this instant itself, What is to be functioned as fourfold mindfulness here, is to see through wisdom, the cessation of the thought that arose in this instant at the same spot within the arising itself. In this way in seeing the arising and the cessation of the thought through wisdom; the Noble Sixfold Gift (sāngika dāna) of ceasing from the attachment, and consisting of six limbs of the gift of colour, the gift of sound, the gift of smell, the gift of taste, the gift of contact and the gift of dhamma included in the Basket of Metaphysics (Ahhidhamma pitaka) is to he functioned. All the gifts mentioned here before, occured corresponding to it. As not being fallen into a view of a thought here, the morality of falling into wrong views (ditthinca anupagamma silo) which is to he mastered for the realization of Nibbāna would he fulfilled. Corresponding to it, the ten million restrained morality (kotika sanwara sila) would also he fulfilled here as mentioned before. At the same time the meditation of destroying the Becoming which is occurring constantly is to he in action. The only task that is to be performed for the simultaneous function of threefold wholesome of charity, morality and meditation with thorough attention and heedfulness to see the arising and ceasing of the thought. It should be known that seeing the four Noble Truths, the cessation of Conditioned Genesis and the cessation of Cause and Effect are the same.
185 | P a g e
11 HOW TO PROGRESS SEEING WITHIN OWNSELF As the arising of thoughts occur in over speed, it is impossible to see the origination and cessation of thoughts separately. It should be done in this way. The matter of "I" too is a perception taken from a thought. So at first, turn towards your own self. Go on seeing with the mind how the thought of the matter of 'I' is dispersing through breaking and crumbling off. See this example. What would happen when a pill of raw oil cake flour is put into a pan with boiling oil .The oil begins to scatter fast producing millions of tiny bubbles. You see this sight with your mind at this moment when that example is called to your mind. The corporeality of 'I' is to be seen with your mind in the same way. Try to see from within own self, with thorough attention and with heedfulness, the breaking and crumbling off on the same spot, of all activities with all their relevant implements (khanda- heaps or aggregates) when you are engaged in bathing, having meals, cooking, sweeping the court-yard and washing etc. when going on seeing it, you would not be allowed to do it further, because the mind would run towards other objects. It does happen so because the organs and the mind had been trained to receive objects in the past cycle of existence since over millions of Becomings. It is the doctrine of Cause and effect. Therefore it cannot be prevented. Don't be nervous. See which is being attached to the mind with patience and restraint. If what was being attached is a tree (the tree too is a thought) see from within own self, how the tree is dispersing through breaking and crumbling off. If what was being attached is a child (child too is a thought) see it too in the same way. In this way, chasing after the mind fast, go on seeing all what
186 | P a g e
is being attached. This procedure is to be practiced while you are engaging constantly in different activities. When you are at rest and alone free from engaging with any work, you should restrain your mind from running towards the past and the future. You should allow the Becoming to be built, seeing through from within yourself, the destruction of matter and mind in this instant through breaking out and crumbling off on the spot. The meditation of in and out breathing can be considered the appropriate meditation for it. But it is not the way as in the convention recalling the incoming and outgoing breath. See from within own self how the matter called 'I' too goes breaking out and crumbling off million times immediately with the sight of the exhalation of the breath inhaled. Had a recalling is done as the breath goes up and goes down, and then the being who is recalled would be there. What is needed is a meditation for the dispersion of the Becoming and ending the concept of Becoming. For the purpose, practice as possible the above form. It is the right meditation of in and out breathing. See from within ownself the way, going breaking off innumerable times, the matter of 'I' within the time- range of one step when you raise one lee and put it down forward in walking. It is to be seen thus from within ownself that this dispersion is functioned constantly at each step. Recalling that 'I' raise the foot and put it down 'means that a being is existed there. The Becoming too existed. But what is to be functioned is the bursting off of the Becoming and the ending up of the concept of being. This is the right meditation of promenade that should function for that purpose.
187 | P a g e
At all occasions of participating in wedding festivals, funerals and travelling by vehicles, go on seeing from within ownself that all the incidents occurring there is a process which is breaking out and crumbling off on the same spot. This can be mastered within own self as, it is only a process. The only thing that is to be functioned in a meditation is breaking off the Becoming, having ended up the two concepts of matter and mind. If you do master this practice of proceeding on seeing from within own self, as clarified above, it is the right method. This is the only system of meditation that is to be mastered constantly and instantly within own self, yet it is not a system of meditation which is to be done only once a week or a month or on a poya day. It is to be functioned non- timely within ownself. Everything that occurs in the convention which is being aimed at the insight is the uniqueness of this system of meditation. This system of meditation which is functioned free without a doer or a causer functioning the insight within the Tranquillity (samata) itself without being caught in the time-triple of past, present and future, is the right method which is to he cultivated for the realization of Nibbana. When this practice is proceeded on cultivating; the arising of thoughts would be cease gradually. The quality of non-time would be developed refraining from the triple time. Creating the craving for sense pleasure, the craving for Becoming and the craving for nonexistence, creating the five hindrances and the ten fetters too would be inactive. The relations between the mind and the sense organs and the concept of T and 'mine' too would be dispersed and so the Becoming would be broken off. When the cultivation of meditation is proceeded, the Conditioned Genesis or the doctrine of Cause and Effect would not occur at a certain instant and would be
188 | P a g e
dropped off. That would be the cessation of perception which leads to the realization of Nibbāna and see the Buddha. This is the Noble Research clarified by the Buddha. (Had mentioned here as realized Nibbāna, having seen the Buddha. a being or person does not exist there and what would happen is only the arising of the Buddhahood or Nibbāna.)
189 | P a g e
12 THE BUDDHAHOOD, NIBBANA AND THE BUDDHA Out of all the subjects in the world, the most profound natures which are extremely difficult to be understood are the Buddhahood and the Nibbana. They are the supreme fruits of the teaching of Buddha. The eighty four thousand portions of the Norm are written on these two subjects. What is introduced in this brief definition is only a very short identification of such profound and wide natures. These profound circumstances are impossible to be introduced with words consisting of conceptions. These profound natures are to be comprehended through a keen observation of the Absolute Truth taught by the Buddha. The Nibbāna, the Buddhist 'Summum bonum' the Ultimate Reality can be seen from within own self through the realization of the perceptivity of what the Buddha taught. The Buddhahood and the Nibbāna, are not two different states. They are synonyms. While arising the Buddhahood the realization of Nibbāna is achieved and when the realization of Nibbāna is achieved the Buddhahood will be arisen. The full Extinction of defilement (kilesa pahāna) is called the 'Saupādi (saupādi) sees Nibbāna This circumstance takes place at the attainment of Arahantship or perfect Holiness. The Buddha was the Noble one who unconcealed the circumstances of the Buddhahood to this world.. The Buddha is honoured by addressing as Buddha Mater and Buddha Pater, for the Buddhahood existed from within him. The Pali text defines the Nibbana as follows: "There is nothing comparable to the Buddhahood or Nibbāna. No corporealities there. No minutes too.
190 | P a g e
It is of neither transientnesses nor quantitativenesses. It is unsimilizable, inestimable and inexpressible and impossible to be shown in causal or theoretic form. 'Thus said, "Nibbānan nasakkā - nibbānassa rūpan vā santhānan vā - vayan vā - pamānan Opammēna vā - karanēna va - herunā vā Nayēna vā - upadēsaitun Nibbana is not subjected to sense orgens as stated in. "vinnanan anidassanan"" The Nibbana is the state of extinction having dropped off both the attachment and nonattachment as stated in the sanyutta nikāya, 'hitvā ratinca aratinca situ bhūtan' The Buddha remarked on Nibbana thus, '0' monks there is no arrrival at Nibbāna. nor a deparure. Nor a remainer. There is no body to be born or to be dead in Nibbana So said thus: “Tatrapāhan bhikkhavē na āgatin vadāmi- na gatin - na thithin - na cutin - na uppattin" With these definitions it is clear that the Nibbāna is a state of non existence of a being or a person. That is why it is said that the Nibbāna or the Buddhahood is to be attainable at a certain instant when all the perceptions are ceased and the mind is ended. The Buddhahood arose from within the Bodhisatta of Siddhattha when the body and mind were ended at an instant. When this is clarified in this way, there would he inquiries to ask that; Had the body and mind ended when the Buddha was born, then who had done the discourses of Dhamma within a period of forty five years? The devotees who are in the attempt of unconcealing the Truth should have to clear out this confusion. The body and mind would be ended through the cessation of perceptions
191 | P a g e
only at an instant. The body and mind would be created caused by the arising of thoughts. What arises in a thought is a functioning of the Conditioned Genesis once. It is a functioning of the doctrine of Cause and Effect. It is an arising of the concepts of body and mind once. It is the creation of Becoming once. Proceeding on seeing from within own self, the dispersion of that thought, through breaking out and crumbling off, is the dispersion of the Conditioned Genesis. It is the dispersion of the doctrine of Cause and Effect. It is the dispersion of Becoming. It is the dispersion of the concepts of body and mind. This is the right way- to enter the realization of Nibbāna. When proceeding on this path with heedfulness and thorough attention and with wisdom, the arising of the thought would cease at an unexpected moment. So the thought is not arisen means the functioning of the cessation of the Conditioned Genesis; It is the cessation of the Cause and Effect. It is the cessation of the Becoming. It is the cessation of the body and mind. It is the cessation of the perceptions which existed there up to that moment. Here the consciousness included with the concepts of body and mind would end only for an instant. Had all these ceased at in instant a thought would arise at the next moment. The Becoming too would be built relevant to it. The concept of Body and mind, too would be created, The doctrine of Cause nd Effect would function. It is the Conditioned Genesis. The consciousness would be active there. The Buddha has said tat the Conditioned Genesis would function whether the Buddhahood is arisen or not, as the Conditioned Genesis would be originated at the next instant after the instant before that the cessation of perception has occurred. The ending of the body and mind after having occurred the cessation of the
192 | P a g e
perception at the instant before would be realized when all of them are recreated functioning the Conditioned Genesis at the next instant. What is called as seeing the Truth, is seeing the Buddha: seeing the Nibbāna, the arising of the right view and the arising of the super wisdom are nothing but this instant cessation. It would be realized at this cessation of perception that there is no being or person to be taken as the 'I' and what exists is the arising and the vanishing of a doctrine of Cause and Effect. What so ever the personnel of different states express the one who has arrived at this perfect vision would never accept that the body taken as 'I' and all the matters outwardly seen exist in reality. Also he would never accept a mind or a consciousness, existing in reality. He would never accept them as he had seen perfectly the nonentity of body and mind from within own self. (It states here as seeing from within ownself, as had to use words to describe it. But none or nothing is there where the seeing occurs.) Seeing of Buddha or seeing of Nibbāna was introduced first to the world by the Buddha. It is profoundly miraculous, his routine of life after the Enlightenment achieved through the cessation of perception at first. He had rendered an incomparable service to the world beings within a period of forty five years, being in the Buddhahood. Although he was entirely freed from the convention from within own self, he worked in the convention with the ordinary people. Once he said thus; addressing a Brahamin, 'O' Brahamin, I have come to know all. I have dropped off all what has to be dropped. I have subdued all which were to be subdued. It is given in the text thus: "Abhinneyyan - abhinnātan – pahātabbanca bhāvitan- pahinamhi pahinan mē tasmā buddhōsmi brahmana." Further said, 'O' Brahamin, A lotus born and grown in the water, stands above unsmeared
193 | P a g e
by water, So the Tathagata, Brahamin. bom and grown up in the world. Yet lives lord over the world without corning together with the world." Thus said: Pundarikan yathā vāggu - tōyena nūpalippati nupalittōhi lōkenā tasmā Buddhasmi Brāhmana" Again to the Brahamin, "O' Brahamin, I was born in the world, and grown in the world without being attached to it" Thus said:"Ahan Brahman lōkē jatō loke samvaddhō-lōkē abhibuyya viharāmi - anupaliptō lokēna Buddhoti Brāhmana madhārēti" When taken as a whole it is seen through his routine he had done all in the convention, having known from within own self the reality of body and mind. The Buddhahood cannot the seen outwardly. The five ascetics seeing the Buddha coming towards them said, "Siddhattha is coming again to see us" When the Buddha was in the alms round in the city of kapilawattu, the king Suddhodana addressed him, "Son why do you ruin me? I am overwhelmed with shame to see you begging alms. Why do you put me into shame?" The princess Yasodara introduced the Buddha to her son as 'Behold son, that golden coloured ascetic, surrounded by thousands of ascetics is your father." Many people who had not known what is in him, recognized him as an ordinary ascetic. Many of them also recognized him well by realizing what he taught. Thus the Buddha said, "One who sees Dhamma sees me." Although some people say, that the consciousness was omitted after arising the Buddhahood through the cessation of perception, it would not be reflected from the conduct of the Buddha. The Buddha recognized the monks who were known to him before in their daily meetings. The Buddha performed his daily work with thorough
194 | P a g e
attention. Once the Buddha accepted receiving a robe from Arahant Kassapa with his consent and said, 'O' son Kassapa your robe is smoother than mine." The Buddha said to "Ananda Thera a short while before his passing away, O' Anandha, I am very thirsty, bring me some water soon".Once again the Buddha appealed Ananda Thera, 'Ananda, I feel a pain in my spine. You had better proceed with the preaching." It is said that the Buddha too had suffered in his life time from certain ailments of pain of eleven sorts. He had expressed his uneasiness of health once to Ananda Thera, thus, 'O' Ananda, I am old now. I bear this weak body of mine arduously as an old cart erected with the support of splinters. Thus stated in the Maha Parinibbana Sutta, "Ahan khō Ananda etarahi jinnō vuddhō-mahallakō-vayō anuppanātō- āsitikō- mē vayō vatthati- seyyāthapi Ananda: Pajjara sakatan vēga missakō yā pēti. Eva kō Ananda: vēga missakō manna tathagatassa kāyo yā pēti." The Buddha visited the city of Kapilavattu seven long years after the Enlightenment where he met his relations and friends including his father, former wife and the son and recognized them all. He went to his former palace too. Not only that Buddha had visited far away places in the missions of Dhamma. It is believed that he had visited three times to this land of ours. All the conventional activities were performed by the Buddha having known obviously that the the body mind and the consciousness are but a mirage. When the Buddha is taken as a person it is true that arising of thoughts did function in him. But the most unusual and
195 | P a g e
miraculous nature which prevailed there was the cessation of thoughts without a single bit of particle of thoughts to be sensed. Though the material gifts were accepted by him the noble quality established throughout the incident that took place there was the absence of attachment. The quality of dispassion prevailed constantly in the Buddha. Although it seems certain incidents of suffering and comfort occurred in him, they all were subjected to cessation within the arising itself. So the quality of insensibility prevailed constantly in the Buddha. As these qualities of dispassion and insensation prevailed involuntarily in the Buddha an over- sight (pamada) of sensation of thoughts, caught in the time never occurred in him. So the quality of non-time prevailed in the Buddha constantly and continuously. This cessation functions within own self after the cessation of perception occurred having freed from the mind; continues onward involuntarily. So no conclusion would be welcome here of an existence of a state of being and person; as the cessation of Five Aggregates and Five Aggregates of Attachment occurs there. Even an exterior world of fine material too is not accepted from within ownself. But due supports are rendered for the benefit of the human society in the conventional world. All the advice needed are given. Good and bad are made clear, all are led in the right way. So a profound doctrine of the Extinction, the Nibbana is unconcealed through the routine. The function of the cessation of all the conventions at the same spot, from within ownself, would be originated, since the cessation of perception occurs at an instant. From the next instant after the instant of that cessation of perception occurred, the consciousness would be activated again,functioning the Conditioned Genesis, the Doctrine of Cause and Effect,
196 | P a g e
forming the Becoming and arising the concept of body and mind. But the cessation of all of them would be continued involuntarily, Had the circle of Becoming been built, the Wheel of the Law (Dhamma cakka) would be arisen within ownself, dispersing the circle of Becoming automatically at the same place. The conflagration of Becoming that was created within ownself would be extinguished by the nectar that flows down there. This circumstantial nature functions in noble men who had seen the Buddha, is the "TwinMiracle:" (yamaka mahā pātihāra) at the simultaneous functioning of flames and water sprays. Any being or person, or anybody called "I" are not connected with these incidents. What is functioned there is, the arising and the cessation of a doctrine of Cause and Effect, freed from a doer or a causer. This is not subjected to the coarse organs as it is an over speedy process. Therefore a pure realization of a Buddha could be achieved by one who had seen the Buddha having ceased from the sense organs. The Buddha is a nature of the constant existence of the victory of the six spheres or six colours (shad vanna) that existed constantly in the Buddha.The colour is a name given tothe victory. It was the Buddha himself who declared to the ascetic Upaka," I am not a god, not even a human, not a Brahma a super god too, not a Yakka a devil, or a Māra a killer too, yet I am only a nature conquest over the eternal universe." It was the Buddha himself who declared that there is no sort of a nature of a being or a person or any one called the 'I', but what exists is only an arising and ceasing of a nature of Cause and Effect created by the ignorance. May all beings arrive at the path leading to Nibbāna, realizing this most profound doctrine of Ultimate Reality, the Buddha has clarified repeatedly to them, who were in search of the way leading to Nibbāna
197 | P a g e
GLOSSAARY Abisambōdhi - the highest Enlightenment.
Abhidhamma -Metaphysics, higher doctrine Abhidhamma pitake - Basket of Metaphysics. Abhinikkamana Acinta - Renunciation. that which cannot be thought.
Adukkhama sukha - feeling which is neither painful nor joyful. Adhamma -unrighteous things, evil, wrong, immoral.
Adhicca samuppanna - theory of complete indeterminism. Adhisila sikshā - training in higher morality.
Adhōrakta kirana - infra-red rays. Ahōsi karma - ineffective kamma. Akalika Akusala Amara - untimely. - unwholesome things. - deathlessness, immortality.
Amāmaha nivana - immortal Nibbana. Antariksha kirana - cosmic rays. Ananta Anatta - eternity. - egolessness, no soul, no entity, non substantiality.
Ananusukha - freedom from debt. Anariyō - ignoble. Anavajjasukha - live faultless pure life without evil thoughts, words and deeds.
198 | P a g e
Anatta vada, Māuna vāda - theory of non-soul. Anubōdha - known accordingly.
Anuttara Dhamma cakka - the matchless wheel of truth. Anuttara samma sambodhi- incomparable supreme enlightenment. Anupassanā - consideration, realization. Bahujana hitāya- for the good of the masses; pro bona publico Bōdhipākkiya dhamma- requisites of enlightenment. Bōdhisatta- enlightenment being Buddha- the enlightened one. Bhava- becoming. Bhava ōgha -current of Becoming Bhava cakka-cycle of becoming Bhavagga-the highest point of existence of the universe Bhavana-meditation or mental culture Bhavitabban-to be developed or self composed Bhikkhu-Monk Bhikkuni-Nun Cakkhu vinnāna – visual consciousness Cakkhu rūpa vinnāna – consciousness of visual corporeality Catudhātu vavattana – meditation of analysis of four elements Catuppaccaya dāna - offering of four requisites
199 | P a g e
Catu Ariya Sacca - Four Noble Truths Catu Satipattāna - Fourfold mindfulness. Caritta- traditions Cāritta sila- raditional morality Citta -mind Cittanupassanā - contemplation of consciousness Cittakkhana - consciousness moments Cittēkaggatā- one pointedness of mind Citta rūpa- mental corporealities Citta rupa vinnana- consciousness of mental corporeality Citta vithi- rocess of consciousness Civara - robes used by Buddhist monks Cētana- volition. Cētasika - mental factors. Cuti - depart, expire, disappear. - ten fetters.
Dasa sanyōjana Dasa sila Dana
- ten precepts.
Dittha dhammika - belong to this world. Ditthi - false view.
Ditthinca anupagamma silavā - the moral of non-arrival at views. Ditthi ōgha - current of views or sight.
200 | P a g e
Dukkha - suffering. Dukkhata - the state of suffering.
Dukkha ariya sacca - the noble truth of suffring. Dukkha dukkhatā - suffering in its most obvious ordinary form. Dullabō khana sampatti -rare instant attainment expositions of the doctrine. Dōmanassa - grief. Dhamma cakka - wheel of the law.
Dhamma cakkhu - stainless eye of dhamma. Dhamma dāna - gift of dhamma.
Dhammānupassanā - contemplation on ethical and spiritual subjects. Dyāna - high mystic attainment. Ekaggatā - one pointedness, concentration. - object together, same object.
Eka nirōdha - cease together, same cessation. Eka vattuka - upheld together, same ground. Ekuppāda - born together, same birth.
Ehipassika - come and see. Gandha rupa - smell corporeality.
Gandha Pupa vinnāna - consciousness of smell corporeality. Gandha rūpa vēdaita sannā sankhāra vinnana - the perceptive contriving consciousness of smell corporeal sensation Gandha rūpa vinnāna - consciousness of olfactory corporeality.
201 | P a g e
- house hold morality.
Hinayāna -small vehicle; a term coined and used by the Mahayanists referring to earlier orthodox sects of Buddhism. See Mahayana. Hētupala -cause and effect. lndiya sanvara sila -morality consisting of purity restraint ofthe senses
lswara vāda -destructive theory. jalābuja -viviporous placental birth. Jatibirth comprises.
Jivhā rūpa vinnāna -consciousness of gustatory corporeality Jivitindiya- life vitality Kabalinkāhāra - ordinary material food.
Kalāpa - group,unit. Kamma - action. Kammakkhaya marana - death due to exhaustion of karmic energy Kammatthāna working ground, subject for meditation. Kamma kata nāno - understand moral causation. Kamma phala vada - theory of the effect of action. Khamma yōni Kamma vatta Kamma vāda - having kamma as origin - kamma round. - Theory of kamma.
Kammāsava - taints of sense pleasure.
202 | P a g e
- sensuous lust.
Kama sukallikānu yōga- devotion to the indulgence of sense pleasure Kāma tanhā - craving for sense pleasure. Kāmāvacara - sensous sphere. Kāya gata sari Kāyanupassanā - mindfulness with regard to the body. - contemplation of the body.
Kilēsa-defilements,impurities Kilēsa pahāna -- full extinction of defilements. Kin saca gavesi- in search of what is truth Khana bhanga- instant destruction. momentory dissolution. Khana sammpatti - momentory fortune. Lujjati palujjati lōko - The world is breaking up and crumbling off. Lōkuttara - super-mundane.
Magga - path. way. Magga phala Magga sacca - path fruition. - truth of the path.
Majjima patipadd - middle path. Mahā bhūta Great Elements (four in number, solidity, fluidity, heat and motion. Mated yāna - Great vehicle, form of Buddhism of later develpopment mainly followed in China, Japan Korea and Tibet. Manasikāra - attention, mental advertence.
203 | P a g e
- mind. - mind elements.
Manō & dhatu
Manō sancētana Ohara - mental volition as nutriment. Manō vinnāna - mind consciousness. perception is a mirage.
Maricitūpamā sandMayā - illusion.
Māyūpamā vinnānnan - consciousness is an illusion. Miccā ditthi - wrong view. Nandirāga sahagatā - bound up with passionate greed. Naca so naca annō- neither the same one nor a different one. Nama rūpa - mentality and materiality. Nana dassana- insight, vision through wisdom
The Buddhist summum bonum; Skr. Nirvana, lit. Extinctiion. (nir+va
to cease blowing) freedom from desire (nir+vana) Absolute Truth, Ultimate Reality. Nirāmisa- non-material. Nirōdha - cessation.
Nirōdha samāpatti – attainment of extinction Nissattō, nisjivō, sunnō - soulless, lifeless and emptiness. Niyati vāāa- strict determination. Niyama dhamma- natural order (five in number) fivefold lawfulness fixedness of law
204 | P a g e
regarding all things. Nekkamma sukha - happiness of renunciation Neyya-requiring Okkanti- beginning of the birth process. Ōgha- current, flood, four cankers Opapātika - accidental. born spontaneously Ōrambhāgiya sanyōjana- fetters belonging to the lower world. Pabbajita sila - morality for the clergy.
Panca indiya- five sense organs. Panca nivarana - five hindrances, fivefold obstacles for the progress of mind.
Pancaskhanda- five aggregates Panca sila- five precepts Panca Upādānakkhanda - five Aggregates of Attachment Papanca-(Skr. prapanca) diffuseness or manifoldness of the world. Parankata vāda - the theory of alien made.
Paramattha dēsana – Ultimate language Paramattha āhamma - Ultimate Reality. Parinneyya -- understand clearly and completely. Phassa ahāra-- contact as nutriment. (contact of internal sense faculties with the external world as nutriment)
205 | P a g e
Phasaa vinnāna Patisōtagāmi
- Consciousness. of contact corporeality. - against the stream.
Patipadā - mode of progress. Patipatti dāna - charity of conduct.
Patirea samuppada - Dependent Origination; Conditioned Genesis. Pindhapāta - medicant food. Pubbe ananussutēstt dhammēsu - the doctrine unheard before. Putujjana - common worldings.
Punnabhi sankhara - meritorious kamma formation at the sensous and fine material spheres. Pōnōbhavikā - re-existence. Rasa rūpa - taste corporeality. Rasa rūpa vinnāna - consciousness of taste corporeality. Rasa rapa vēdana cannā sankāra vinnāna - perceptive contriving consciousness of taste corporeal sensation. Raga - lust, desire. - Aggregate of matter.
Rapa kakipa - corporeal group, material unit. Sabbē dhamnui anattā all dhammas are without self. Sabbē potujjanā ummattakā - All the ordionary people are like mad men. Sabbe sankāra anicca - All the conditioned things are impermanent. Sabbe" sankara dukkha - -All the component things are dukkha (suffering)
206 | P a g e
Sadda rūpa vinnāna - Consciousness of sound corporeality. Sadda rūpa vedaita sannā sankāra vinnāna- Perceptive Conniving consciousness of sound corporeal sensation. Sakkāya ditthi -- personality belief. Samata- tranaullity, gaining, concentrtaive calm. Samatdhi-- concentration. Samma ajiva- right means of livelihood. Samma ditthi-right view. Summa kammamha- right action, conduct. Samma sankappa- right thought or intention. Samma sati- right mindfulness Sammavaca-right speech Samma vāyama- right effort. Samparāika- belong to next world Samudaya- origination, arising. Sangika dana- noble sixfold gift, charity in favour of the order Sanjanana- recognition. S a n k h ā r a – volitional formation. Sankhārā kadalapamā – thought is like a plantain tree. Sangha- Buddhist clergy Sansāra dukkhata- suffering of continuity of existence. Samata yanika- belonging to the Tranquil Vehicle.
207 | P a g e
Tanhā- craving, thirst. Tatāgata- the perfect one . one who has found the truth.(tatha = truth,gata = arrived) Tatra tatrābhi nandini - find fresh delight now here and now there. Tilakkhana- three characteristics of existence. Tipitaka- three baskets, triple canon, the three main canonical divisions of the teaching of Buddha, code of discipline(vinaya) discourses (sutta) and higher doctrine (Abhidhamma) Tejo dhatu -fire elements. Ubhayakkhaya marana-Binary declinatory death. Ucceda vada-annihilationist theory. Uddacca kukkucca-restlessness and worry, flurry and worry. udambhagiya sanyojana - higher fetters. Uggati tanna-known through striving. Upadana-Grasping, attachment. Upasaka-male lay adherent, sitting close by. Upasika-female layadherent. Upekkha-equanimity. Utu-temperature seasons. Vanna rupa-colour corporealities. Vanna rupa vedaita sanna sankhara vinnana-The perceptive Contriving Consciousness of colour corporeal sensation. Varitta sila- exclusive morality. Vayadhamma- dissolution factors, subject to change wind elements.
208 | P a g e
Vaya dhatu-wind elements. Vibhava tanha- craving for non-existence. Vicikicca-doubt. Vijanana-awareness. Vinaya-discipline. Vinaya pitake-Basket of discipline. Vinnana-consciousness. Vinnana ahare-nutriments of consciousness. Viparinama dukkhata-suffering caused by change. Vippatitanna-known by reviewing. Vislesana niyaya-theory of penetration or acute wisdom of insight. Vitakka-reflextion, contemplation. Vedana bubbulupama-sensation is similar to the pubbles. Viriya-energy Viyapada-anger,hatred,illwill Yatha bhuta-in reality as things are Yatha . bhuta nana dassana - knowledge of vision of things as -they truly are. Yoniso manasikara- thorough attention, wise consideration.